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Various studies suggest that vitamin D may reduce breast cancer risk. Most studies assessed the effects of dietary intake only, although endogenous production is an important source of vitamin D. Therefore, the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] better indicates overall vitamin D status. To assess the association of 25(OH)D serum(More)
Physical activity (PA) has been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. However, it is unclear how and in which life periods PA may be effective to reduce breast cancer risk. Moreover, the evidence is still not judged as 'convincing' as there is some heterogeneity among study results. Most studies regarded breast cancer as a single(More)
Important aspects of the recognized inverse relation between physical activity and breast cancer risk are still under discussion. Data on physical activity from sports, occupational activity, household tasks, walking, and cycling by reported frequency, duration, and intensity during adolescence and young adulthood were collected in 1999-2000 from 360(More)
INTRODUCTION Vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotypes may influence breast cancer risk by altering potential anticarcinogenic effects of vitamin D, but epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Effect modification by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH]D), the biomarker for vitamin D status in humans, has rarely been examined. METHODS We assessed the(More)
INTRODUCTION The cytotoxic effects of radiation therapy are mediated primarily through increased formation of hydroxyl radicals and reactive oxygen species, which can damage cells, proteins and DNA; the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) function to protect against oxidative stress. We hypothesized that polymorphisms encoding reduced or absent activity in(More)
p53 and p21 play an important role in G1/S checkpoint control in response to ionizing radiation. Yet the genetic polymorphisms in these genes have not been investigated with respect to radiation toxicity in patients. We therefore assessed the association between TP53 Arg72Pro, p53PIN3 and p21 Ser31Arg polymorphisms and the risk of acute skin toxicity after(More)
Recent studies suggest that both active and passive smokers have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with women who have never been either actively or passively exposed. Data on lifetime active and passive smoking were collected in 1999-2000 from 468 predominantly premenopausal breast cancer patients diagnosed by age 50 years and 1,093 controls who(More)
Studies of the association between alcohol drinking and breast cancer show a tendency towards an increase in risk for high consumption levels but yield less consistent results for low-to-moderate levels, particularly among premenopausal women. In a population-based case-control study in Germany, the authors determined the effect of alcohol consumption at(More)
The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium selected 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), for which there is evidence from previous studies of an association with variation in ovarian cancer or breast cancer risks. The SNPs selected for analysis were F31I (rs2273535) in AURKA, N372H (rs144848) in BRCA2, rs2854344 in intron 17 of RB1, rs2811712(More)
PURPOSE Because radiotherapy exerts cytotoxic effects via generation of massive oxidative stress, we hypothesized that catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genotypes might result in greater risk of radiotoxicity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Cases (n = 446) were Caucasian women with breast(More)