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In mammals, the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and subordinate clocks found throughout the body coordinate circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology. We characterize the clock of the adrenal, an important endocrine gland that synchronizes physiological and metabolic rhythms. Clock gene expression was detected in the outer adrenal cortex(More)
The brain's master circadian pacemaker resides within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). SCN clock neurons are entrained to the day/night cycle via the retinohypothalamic tract and the SCN provides temporal information to the central nervous system and to peripheral organs that function as secondary oscillators. The SCN clock-cell network is(More)
Initiation of drug use during adolescence is a strong predictor of both the incidence and severity of addiction throughout the lifetime. Intriguingly, adolescence is a period of dynamic refinement in the organization of neuronal connectivity, in particular medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine circuitry. The guidance cue receptor, DCC (deleted in(More)
Stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and CXCR4 comprise a unique chemokine/chemokine receptor pair, exhibiting important functions in morphogenesis and growth regulation as well as attractant properties on T lymphocytes. No data are available on SDF-1 and CXCR4 in normal or pathological thyroid tissues. SDF-1, CXCR4, and CD18 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)(More)
Endogenous circadian (∼24 h) clocks regulate key physiological and cognitive processes via rhythmic expression of clock genes. The main circadian pacemaker is the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Mood disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD), are commonly associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. Dopamine (DA) contributes to mania in BD and(More)
BACKGROUND Circadian clocks control cell cycle factors, and circadian disruption promotes cancer. To address whether enhancing circadian rhythmicity in tumor cells affects cell cycle progression and reduces proliferation, we compared growth and cell cycle events of B16 melanoma cells and tumors with either a functional or dysfunctional clock. RESULTS We(More)
Various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, are comorbid with sleep and circadian rhythm disruptions. To understand the links between circadian rhythms and schizophrenia, we analyzed wheel-running behavior of Sandy (Sdy) mice, which have a loss-of-function mutation in the schizophrenia risk gene Dtnbp1, and exhibit several behavioral features of(More)
The immune system is deeply interconnected with the endogenous 24-h oscillators of the circadian system. Indeed, the connection between these two physiological systems occurs at multiple levels and in both directions. On one hand, various aspects of the immune system show daily rhythms, which appear to be essential for healthy immune maintenance and proper(More)
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