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In 1985, Doignon and Falmagne introduced surmise relations for representing prerequisite relationships between items within a body of information for the assessment of knowledge. Often it is useful to partition such a body of information into sub-collections. As we are primarily interested in psychological applications, we refer to these sub-collections as(More)
This paper investigates the development of relative clauses in the speech of one German-speaking child aged 2 ; 0 to 5 ; 0. The earliest relative clauses we found in the data occur in topicalization constructions that are only a little different from simple sentences: they contain a single proposition, express the actor prior to other participants, assert(More)
De Villiers (Lingua, 2007, Vol. 117, pp. 1858-1878) and others have claimed that children come to understand false belief as they acquire linguistic constructions for representing a proposition and the speaker's epistemic attitude toward that proposition. In the current study, English-speaking children of 3 and 4years of age (N=64) were asked to interpret(More)
Linguistic communication almost always concerns events, actions, or states of affairs. Declaratives or informatives invite the listener to attend to some event, action, or state of affairs, and imperatives or directives enjoin the listener to do something to bring about a desired action or state of affairs. Thus, even when young children are using object(More)
This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L produced and(More)
This paper investigates natural, left-, right-, and total-covering test surmise relations on a set of tests partitioning the domain of a knowledge structure. The properties of reflexivity, transitivity, and antisymmetry are examined. In particular, it is shown that the property of antisymmetry is satisfied for the left-, right-, and total-covering test(More)
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