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Many voltage-dependent K+ channels open when the membrane is depolarized and then rapidly close by a process called inactivation. Neurons use inactivating K+ channels to modulate their firing frequency. In Shaker-type K+ channels, the inactivation gate, which is responsible for the closing of the channel, is formed by the channel's cytoplasmic amino(More)
The control of motor behavior in animals and humans requires constant adaptation of neuronal networks to signals of various types and strengths. We found that microRNA-128 (miR-128), which is expressed in adult neurons, regulates motor behavior by modulating neuronal signaling networks and excitability. miR-128 governs motor activity by suppressing the(More)
I. The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen and caecum were compared when sheep were given barley or dried grass. The molar proportions of VFA in the caecum resembled those in the rumen except that the proportions of isobutyric and isovaleric acids were higher in caecal than in rumen fluid indicating an extensive breakdown of protein(More)
The structure of the cytoplasmic assembly of voltage-dependent K+ channels was solved by x-ray crystallography at 2.1 angstrom resolution. The assembly includes the cytoplasmic (T1) domain of the integral membrane alpha subunit together with the oxidoreductase beta subunit in a fourfold symmetric T1(4)beta4 complex. An electrophysiological assay showed that(More)
I . Two pairs of Friesian steers were changed from ad lib. to restricted intake of a pelleted barley diet and were maintained on this latter intake for periods of 18 or 25 weeks. The restricted level of intake was 70 g/kg0-73 and was adjusted weekly according to individual live weights. The daily allowance was given in three equal feeds during day-time. 2.(More)
At the neuromuscular junction, motoneuron-derived agrin is concentrated in the basal lamina of the synaptic cleft where it is responsible for the formation of the postsynaptic apparatus. As a step toward understanding agrin's role in the developing central nervous system, we have characterized agrin in retinal cell cultures as well as in the intact retina.(More)
Agrin is a high-molecular weight extracellular matrix molecule, initially purified from the electric organ of the marine ray Torpedo californica, which induces on the surface of cultured myotubes the formation of postsynaptic specializations similar to those found at the neuromuscular junction. Agrin immunoreactivity is highly concentrated in the basal(More)