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UNLABELLED Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid(More)
Insects are commonly infected with multiple viruses including those that cause sublethal, asymptomatic, and latent infections. Traditional methods for virus isolation typically lack the sensitivity required for detection of such viruses that are present at low abundance. In this respect, next generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized methods(More)
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Rev is an essential regulatory protein that facilitates expression of viral mRNAs encoding structural proteins and genomic RNA and regulates alternative splicing of the bicistronic tat/rev mRNA. EIAV Rev is characterized by a high rate of genetic variation in vivo, and changes in Rev genotype and phenotype have been(More)
A prominent feature on the surfaces of virions of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a negatively charged loop structure (the beta H-beta I loop). Six of 8 amino acids in this capsid protein loop are highly conserved among strains of CMV and other cucumoviruses. Five of these amino acids were individually changed to alanine or lysine (an amino acid of opposite(More)
BACKGROUND There are urgent needs for rapid and accurate drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. GenoType MTBDRsl is a new molecular kit designed for rapid identification of the resistance to the second-line antituberculosis drugs with a single strip. In recent years, it has been evaluated in many settings, but with varied results. The aim of this(More)
We determined the 3prime prime or minute-terminal primary and secondary structures required for replication of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA in oat protoplasts. Computer predictions, nuclease probing, phylogenetic comparisons, and replication assays of specific mutants and chimeras revealed that the 3prime prime or minute-terminal 109 nucleotides(More)
Epigenetic changes are involved in learning and memory, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are considered potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) acts as an HDAC inhibitor. Here, we demonstrate that EGCG reduced β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in vitro and rescued(More)
Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the(More)
BACKGROUND The soybean aphid has significantly impacted soybean production in the U.S. Transcriptomic analyses were conducted for further insight into leads for potential novel management strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Transcriptomic data were generated from whole aphids and from 2,000 aphid guts using an Illumina GAII sequencer. The sequence(More)
The sap-sucking insects (order Hemiptera), including aphids, planthoppers, whiteflies and stink bugs, present one of the greatest challenges for pest management in global agriculture. Insect neurotoxins offer an alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling these pests, but require delivery into the insect hemocoel. Here we use the coat protein of a(More)