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The ecological theory of adaptive radiation predicts that the evolution of phenotypic diversity within species is generated by divergent natural selection arising from different environments and competition between species. Genetic connectivity among populations is likely also to have an important role in both the origin and maintenance of adaptive genetic(More)
To examine the population genetic structure of lake-resident Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus from northwest Europe on multiple spatial scales, 2367 individuals from 43 lakes located in three geographical regions (Iceland, the British Isles and Scandinavia) were genotyped at six microsatellite loci. On a large scale, data provided little evidence to support(More)
Morphological, dietary and life-history variation in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus were characterized from three geographically proximate, but isolated lakes and one large lake into which they drain in south-western Alaska. Polymorphism was predicted to occur in the first three lakes because S. alpinus tend to become polymorphic in deep, isolated lakes(More)
The geographical context of divergence and local adaptation of lacustrine fish is controversial. Despite recent theoretical support for sympatric and parapatric divergence, empirical studies providing unequivocal support for this remain scant. An important component of such a case would be where multiple lakes have different morphs and a range of markers,(More)
The evolutionary processes involved in population divergence and local adaptation are poorly understood. Theory predicts that divergence of adjacent populations is possible but depends on several factors including gene flow, divergent selection, population size and the number of genes involved in divergence and their distribution on the genome. We analyse(More)
Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly polymorphic species and in Lake Thingvallavatn, Iceland, four phenotypic morphs have evolved. These differences in morphology, especially in craniofacial structures are already apparent during embryonic development, indicating that genes important in the formation of the craniofacial features are expressed(More)
It is critical to study factors that are important for origin and maintenance of biological diversity. A comparative approach involving a large number of populations is particularly useful. We use this approach to study the relationship between ecological factors and phenotypic diversity in Icelandic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Numerous populations(More)
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as a major class of developmental regulators. Sequences of many miRNAs are highly conserved, yet they often exhibit temporal and spatial heterogeneity in expression among species and have been proposed as an important reservoir for adaptive evolution and divergence. With this in mind we studied miRNA expression during(More)
This study investigated how dietary habits vary with lake characteristics in a fish species that exhibits extensive morphological and ecological variability, the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Iceland is a hotspot of geological activity, so its freshwater ecosystems vary greatly in physical and chemical attributes. Associations of dietary items within(More)
The response of age 0+ year juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua to the presence of age 1+ and age 3+ year conspecifics was measured with and without cover available. Juveniles reacted by aggregating more closely and maintaining distance from older conspecifics in an experimental setting without cover but only to age 3+ year conspecifics when cover was(More)
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