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Endothelins are well known as modulators of inflammation in the periphery, but little is known about their possible role in brain inflammation. Stimulation of astrocyte prostaglandin, an inflammatory mediator, synthesis was shown so far only by endothelin 3 (ET-3). By contrast, several studies showed no change or slight decrease of basal nitric oxide(More)
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. A growing body of research focuses on the role of microglia, the primary immune cells in the brain, in modulating brain inflammation and oxidative stress. One of the most abundant antioxidants in the brain, particularly in glia, is the dipeptide(More)
The role of kinins, well known as peripheral inflammatory mediators, in the modulation of brain inflammation is unclear. The present data show that bradykinin, a bradykinin B(2) receptor agonist, enhanced both basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat neonatal glial cells in culture. By contrast, Lys-des-Arg(9)-bradykinin,(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-1beta share low amino acid homology, but exhibit a very similar array of biological activities. The authors previously showed negative regulation of IL-1alpha-induced prostaglandin (PG) production by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). In this study, the authors compared the effect of CRF on IL-1alpha- and IL-1beta-induced(More)
Microglial activation plays an integral role in the development and course of neurodegeneration. Although neuropeptides such as bradykinin (BK), somatostatin (SST), and endothelin (ET) are known to be important mediators of inflammation in the periphery, evidence of a similar function in brain is scarce. Using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate the(More)
Recent evidence suggests that not only the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but also other hormones in the axis may be involved in regulation of the inflammatory response. We investigated the role of CRF in the regulation of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of somatostatin in the regulation of brain inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 production in neonatal rat microglia and in astrocytes as a model of brain inflammation. Our data show an unexpected differential effect of somatostatin on lipopolysaccharide-induced(More)
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a predominant regulator of the neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to stress. In addition, numerous studies support autocrine/paracrine roles for this peptide at peripheral sites. CRF and CRF binding sites have been identified in different regions of the central nervous system as well as in the heart,(More)
The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce(More)
Eicosanoids are thought to play a role in the regulation of invertebrate reproduction, as they do in vertebrate systems. This was investigated using the previtellogenic ovary of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii as a biological model. Concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), assessed by means of radioimmunoassay, in the previtellogenic ovary(More)