Learn More
Endothelins are well known as modulators of inflammation in the periphery, but little is known about their possible role in brain inflammation. Stimulation of astrocyte prostaglandin, an inflammatory mediator, synthesis was shown so far only by endothelin 3 (ET-3). By contrast, several studies showed no change or slight decrease of basal nitric oxide(More)
Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. A growing body of research focuses on the role of microglia, the primary immune cells in the brain, in modulating brain inflammation and oxidative stress. One of the most abundant antioxidants in the brain, particularly in glia, is the dipeptide(More)
Microglial activation plays an integral role in the development and course of neurodegeneration. Although neuropeptides such as bradykinin (BK), somatostatin (SST), and endothelin (ET) are known to be important mediators of inflammation in the periphery, evidence of a similar function in brain is scarce. Using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate the(More)
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a predominant regulator of the neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to stress. In addition, numerous studies support autocrine/paracrine roles for this peptide at peripheral sites. CRF and CRF binding sites have been identified in different regions of the central nervous system as well as in the heart,(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term effect of bradykinin on the two cyclooxygenase species in neonatal rat glial cells. In spite of the fact that cyclooxygenase protein levels were not altered, an increase in cyclooxygenase activity was observed. Use of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors and paracetamol resulted in complete elimination(More)
Bradykinin (BK) is a major potent inflammatory mediator outside the central nervous system. In Alzheimer's disease, BK release and BK receptor expression in brain tissues are upregulated relatively early during the course of the disease. Hence, BK was believed to promote neuroinflammation. However, BK was recently reported to possess anti-inflammatory and(More)
The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce(More)
It has been shown that kinins and their receptors are over expressed in the brain under pathophysiological conditions such as inflammation. However, little is known about the possible role of kinins, and especially bradykinin in brain inflammation. Although kinins are thought to have immediate effects, peptides may also exert longer and protein synthesis(More)
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to a potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used for the management of hypertension. All components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have also been identified in the brain. In addition to cytokines, neuromodulators such as ANG II can induce(More)
Glial inflammation plays a major role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Although endothelins (ETs) are known as modulators of inflammation in the periphery, little is known about their possible role in brain inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated that all three endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) enhanced unstimulated synthesis of the glial(More)