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We present an improved and extended version of our coarse grained lipid model. The new version, coined the MARTINI force field, is parametrized in a systematic way, based on the reproduction of partitioning free energies between polar and apolar phases of a large number of chemical compounds. To reproduce the free energies of these chemical building blocks,(More)
Many biologically interesting phenomena occur on a time scale that is too long to be studied by atomistic simulations. These phenomena include the dynamics of large proteins and self-assembly of biological materials. Coarse-grained (CG) molecular modeling allows computer simulations to be run on length and time scales that are 2-3 orders of magnitude larger(More)
A large variety of antimicrobial peptides have been shown to act, at least in vitro, by poration of the lipid membrane. The nanometre size of these pores, however, complicates their structural characterization by experimental techniques. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations, to study the interaction of a specific class of antimicrobial peptides,(More)
Hydrophilic pores are formed in peptide free lipid bilayers under mechanical stress. It has been proposed that the transport of ionic species across such membranes is largely determined by the existence of such meta-stable hydrophilic pores. To study the properties of these structures and understand the mechanism by which pore expansion leads to membrane(More)
The Martini coarse-grained force field has been successfully used for simulating a wide range of (bio)molecular systems. Recent progress in our ability to test the model against fully atomistic force fields, however, has revealed some shortcomings. Most notable, phenylalanine and proline were too hydrophobic, and dimers formed by polar residues in apolar(More)
We describe molecular dynamics simulations elucidating the molecular details of the process of fusion for small lipid vesicles. The simulations are based on a coarse grained (CG) lipid model that accurately represents the lamellar state of a variety of phospholipids and enables us to observe intermediate stages during fusion at near atomic detail.(More)
Cell membranes contain a large number of different lipid species. Such a multicomponent mixture exhibits a complex phase behavior with regions of structural and compositional heterogeneity. Especially domains formed in ternary mixtures, composed of saturated and unsaturated lipids together with cholesterol, have received a lot of attention as they may(More)
The detailed organization of cellular membranes remains rather elusive. Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we provide a high-resolution view of the lipid organization of a plasma membrane at an unprecedented level of complexity. Our plasma membrane model consists of 63 different lipid species, combining 14 types of headgroups and 11 types(More)
We present results from coarse grain molecular dynamics simulations of mixed model membranes consisting of saturated and unsaturated lipids together with cholesterol, in which lipid-anchored membrane proteins are embedded. The membrane proteins studied are the peripherally bound H-Ras, N-Ras, and Hedgehog, and the transmembrane peptides WALP and LAT. We(More)