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Human mutations in Nkx2-5 lead to progressive cardiomyopathy and conduction defects via unknown mechanisms. To define these pathways, we generated mice with a ventricular-restricted knockout of Nkx2-5, which display no structural defects but have progressive complete heart block, and massive trabecular muscle overgrowth found in some patients with Nkx2-5(More)
BACKGROUND In the management of hearts with deranged laterality, it is essential that the left and right atrial chambers are correctly identified. There are two major approaches, which are based on venous connections or on the morphology of the atrial appendages, and there is no consensus as to which is the most useful. We used the iv/iv mouse mutant, which(More)
BACKGROUND Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients is often initiated by foci in the pulmonary veins. The mechanism of these initiating arrhythmias is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine electrophysiological characteristics of canine pulmonary veins that may predispose to initiating arrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS Extracellular recordings(More)
BACKGROUND Late morbidity and mortality remain problematic after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We hypothesized that fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) would be present in adults with repaired TOF and would be related to adverse markers of outcome. METHOD AND RESULTS LGE was scored in the(More)
BACKGROUND The patterns of activation of the human left atrium (LA), how they relate to atrial myocardial architecture, and their role in arrhythmogenesis remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Left atrial endocardial activation was mapped in 19 patients with a percutaneous noncontact mapping system. Earliest endocardial breakthrough during sinus(More)
BACKGROUND Esophageal injury is a potential complication after intraoperative or percutaneous transcatheter ablation of the posterior aspect of the left atrium. Understanding the spatial relations between the esophagus and the left atrium is essential to reduce risks. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined by gross dissection the course of the esophagus in 15(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (cDTI) measures the magnitudes and directions of intramyocardial water diffusion. Assuming the cross-myocyte components to be constrained by the laminar microstructures of myocardium, we hypothesized that cDTI at two cardiac phases might identify any abnormalities of laminar orientation and mobility in(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial disarray is an important histological feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) which has been studied post-mortem, but its in-vivo prevalence and extent is unknown. Cardiac Diffusion Tensor Imaging (cDTI) provides information on mean intravoxel myocyte orientation and potentially myocardial disarray. Recent technical advances have(More)
BACKGROUND Dilatation of the aortic root is a known feature in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients with pulmonary stenosis (PS) or pulmonary atresia (PA). We hypothesized that intrinsic histological abnormalities of the aortic wall present since infancy are an important causative factor leading to aortic root dilatation. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the(More)
In a subset of patients, atrial fibrillation is caused by rapidly firing foci that are often located in the pulmonary veins especially when fibrillation is paroxysmal. Histologic data show that myocardial tissue of the left atrial wall extends into the pulmonary venous walls. Both in dog and human pulmonary veins, arrangement of the myofibers is complex.(More)