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In order to investigate the possibility of regional variation of ventricular structure, 25 normal postmortem human hearts were studied by inspection of cavity shape and subepicardial fibre orientation, by dissection, and by the histology of sections in two orthogonal planes. Ventricular architecture was complex. Inlet and outlet long axes were separated by(More)
INTRODUCTION The feasibility of treating atrial fibrillation with radiofrequency ablation has revived interest in the structure of the left atrium, a chamber that has been neglected in many textbooks of anatomy. METHODS AND RESULTS We reviewed the gross structure of the left atrium by examining the septum, the appendage, and insertions of the pulmonary(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to investigate the electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics for guiding catheter ablation in patients with repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT) originating from the aortic sinus cusp (ASC). BACKGROUND Repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia can originate from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and ASC(More)
Zebrafish are a valuable model for mammalian lipid metabolism; larvae process lipids similarly through the intestine and hepatobiliary system and respond to drugs that block cholesterol synthesis in humans. After ingestion of fluorescently quenched phospholipids, endogenous lipase activity and rapid transport of cleavage products results in intense gall(More)
The great number of open heart operations now performed via the right atrium, makes knowledge of the arrangement of the atrial arteries, particularly the sinus node artery, every important for the surgeon. Although studied by anatomists, little attention has been paid to the surgical significance of these arteries. We have therefore examined the(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the architecture of the human sinus node to facilitate understanding of mapping and ablative procedures in its vicinity. METHODS The sinoatrial region was examined in 47 randomly selected adult human hearts by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS The sinus node, crescent-like in shape, and 13.5 (2.5) mm(More)
BACKGROUND Radiofrequency ablation of tissues in pulmonary veins can eliminate paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVE To explore the characteristics of normal pulmonary veins so as to provide more information relevant to radiofrequency ablation. METHODS 20 structurally normal heart specimens were examined grossly. Histological sections were made from(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the mortality currently associated with smoking in Hong Kong, and, since cigarette consumption reached its peak 20 years earlier in Hong Kong than in mainland China, to predict mortality in China 20 years hence. DESIGN Case-control study. Past smoking habits of all Chinese adults in Hong Kong who died in 1998 (cases) were sought from(More)
BACKGROUND late mortality after repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is frequently associated with pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO). We aimed to describe the morphological spectrum of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and identify risk factors for death and postoperative PVO. METHODS AND RESULTS we conducted a retrospective,(More)
Human mutations in Nkx2-5 lead to progressive cardiomyopathy and conduction defects via unknown mechanisms. To define these pathways, we generated mice with a ventricular-restricted knockout of Nkx2-5, which display no structural defects but have progressive complete heart block, and massive trabecular muscle overgrowth found in some patients with Nkx2-5(More)