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In order to investigate the possibility of regional variation of ventricular structure, 25 normal postmortem human hearts were studied by inspection of cavity shape and subepicardial fibre orientation, by dissection, and by the histology of sections in two orthogonal planes. Ventricular architecture was complex. Inlet and outlet long axes were separated by(More)
INTRODUCTION The feasibility of treating atrial fibrillation with radiofrequency ablation has revived interest in the structure of the left atrium, a chamber that has been neglected in many textbooks of anatomy. METHODS AND RESULTS We reviewed the gross structure of the left atrium by examining the septum, the appendage, and insertions of the pulmonary(More)
Zebrafish are a valuable model for mammalian lipid metabolism; larvae process lipids similarly through the intestine and hepatobiliary system and respond to drugs that block cholesterol synthesis in humans. After ingestion of fluorescently quenched phospholipids, endogenous lipase activity and rapid transport of cleavage products results in intense gall(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the architecture of the human sinus node to facilitate understanding of mapping and ablative procedures in its vicinity. METHODS The sinoatrial region was examined in 47 randomly selected adult human hearts by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS The sinus node, crescent-like in shape, and 13.5 (2.5) mm(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to investigate the electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics for guiding catheter ablation in patients with repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (RMVT) originating from the aortic sinus cusp (ASC). BACKGROUND Repetitive monomorphic ventricular tachycardia can originate from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and ASC(More)
BACKGROUND Radiofrequency ablation of tissues in pulmonary veins can eliminate paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVE To explore the characteristics of normal pulmonary veins so as to provide more information relevant to radiofrequency ablation. METHODS 20 structurally normal heart specimens were examined grossly. Histological sections were made from(More)
Human mutations in Nkx2-5 lead to progressive cardiomyopathy and conduction defects via unknown mechanisms. To define these pathways, we generated mice with a ventricular-restricted knockout of Nkx2-5, which display no structural defects but have progressive complete heart block, and massive trabecular muscle overgrowth found in some patients with Nkx2-5(More)
The relationship between anatomy and function has long been recognised. Understanding the gross structure, and the myoarchitecture, of the atriums is fundamental to investigations into the substrates and therapy of atrial fibrillation. Based primarily on our experience with normal human hearts, this review provides, firstly, a basis of comparison of gross(More)
BACKGROUND Dilatation of the aortic root is a known feature in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients with pulmonary stenosis (PS) or pulmonary atresia (PA). We hypothesized that intrinsic histological abnormalities of the aortic wall present since infancy are an important causative factor leading to aortic root dilatation. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the(More)
Retrospective analysis was performed to determine the likely cause of death in six patients who died suddenly 1-9 years after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. The integrity of the atrioventricular conduction system and myocardium was examined in three hearts at necropsy. Two of three patients who complained of palpitation or syncope had frequent premature(More)