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In order to investigate the possibility of regional variation of ventricular structure, 25 normal postmortem human hearts were studied by inspection of cavity shape and subepicardial fibre orientation, by dissection, and by the histology of sections in two orthogonal planes. Ventricular architecture was complex. Inlet and outlet long axes were separated by(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the mortality currently associated with smoking in Hong Kong, and, since cigarette consumption reached its peak 20 years earlier in Hong Kong than in mainland China, to predict mortality in China 20 years hence. DESIGN Case-control study. Past smoking habits of all Chinese adults in Hong Kong who died in 1998 (cases) were sought from(More)
INTRODUCTION The feasibility of treating atrial fibrillation with radiofrequency ablation has revived interest in the structure of the left atrium, a chamber that has been neglected in many textbooks of anatomy. METHODS AND RESULTS We reviewed the gross structure of the left atrium by examining the septum, the appendage, and insertions of the pulmonary(More)
BACKGROUND Late morbidity and mortality remain problematic after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We hypothesized that fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) would be present in adults with repaired TOF and would be related to adverse markers of outcome. METHOD AND RESULTS LGE was scored in the(More)
The underlying cause of congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) has recently been identified as a loss-of function mutation of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23, resulting in an obstructive arteriopathy of varying severity, which is most prominent at the aortic sinutubular junction. The generalized nature of the disease explains the frequent(More)
Atrial structures are important in the current era of cardiac interventions using percutaneous transcatheter procedures. Understanding their locations and component parts helps to reduce risks of procedural-related damage. The general arrangement of the myofibers that make up the atrial walls is reviewed to provide a morphologic basis for atrial conduction(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the architecture of the human sinus node to facilitate understanding of mapping and ablative procedures in its vicinity. METHODS The sinoatrial region was examined in 47 randomly selected adult human hearts by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS The sinus node, crescent-like in shape, and 13.5 (2.5) mm(More)
BACKGROUND Radiofrequency ablation of tissues in pulmonary veins can eliminate paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVE To explore the characteristics of normal pulmonary veins so as to provide more information relevant to radiofrequency ablation. METHODS 20 structurally normal heart specimens were examined grossly. Histological sections were made from(More)
Zebrafish are a valuable model for mammalian lipid metabolism; larvae process lipids similarly through the intestine and hepatobiliary system and respond to drugs that block cholesterol synthesis in humans. After ingestion of fluorescently quenched phospholipids, endogenous lipase activity and rapid transport of cleavage products results in intense gall(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare BMI with waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) in association with diabetes or hypertension. METHODS AND PROCEDURES Cross-sectional data from 16 cohorts from the DECODA (Diabetes Epidemiology: Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic criteria in Asia) study, comprising 9,095 men and 11,732(More)