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The role of transcription factors in regulating the development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons is intensively studied owing to the involvement of these neurons in diverse neurological disorders. Here we demonstrate novel roles for the forkhead/winged helix transcription factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 in the specification and differentiation of mDA neurons(More)
Proneural genes are crucial regulators of neurogenesis and subtype specification in many areas of the nervous system; however, their function in dopaminergic neuron development is unknown. We report that proneural genes have an intricate pattern of expression in the ventricular zone of the ventral midbrain, where mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons are(More)
Mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons control voluntary movement and reward based behaviours. Their dysfunction can lead to neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease. These neurons are thought to arise from progenitors in the floor plate of the caudal diencephalon and midbrain. Members of the Foxa family of forkhead/winged helix transcription(More)
Patterning of the mouse embryo along the anteroposterior axis during body plan development requires migration of the distal visceral endoderm (DVE) towards the future anterior side by a mechanism that has remained unknown. Here we show that Nodal signalling and the regionalization of its antagonists are required for normal migration of the DVE. Whereas(More)
In many regions of the developing CNS, distinct cell types are born at different times. The means by which discrete and stereotyped temporal switches in cellular identities are acquired remains poorly understood. To address this, we have examined how visceral motor neurons (VMNs) and serotonergic neurons, two neuronal subtypes, are sequentially generated(More)
The neuroendocrine hypothalamus regulates a number of critical biological processes and underlies a range of diseases from growth failure to obesity. Although the elucidation of hypothalamic function has progressed well, knowledge of hypothalamic development is poor. In particular, little is known about the processes underlying the neurogenesis and(More)
Mammalian hairy and Enhancer of split homolog 1 (HES1), a basic helix-loop-helix factor gene, is expressed in retinal progenitor cells, and its expression decreases as differentiation proceeds. Retinal progenitor cells infected with HES1-transducing retrovirus did not differentiate into mature retinal cells, suggesting that persistent expression of HES1(More)
The specification of distinct neuronal cell-types is controlled by inducing signals whose interpretation in distinct areas along the central nervous system provides neuronal progenitors with a precise and typical expression code of transcription factors. To gain insights into this process, we investigated the role of Otx2 in the specification of identity(More)
The transcription factor Otx2 is required to determine mesencephalic versus metencephalic (cerebellum/pons) territory during embryogenesis. This function of Otx2 primarily involves positioning and maintaining the mid-hindbrain organizer at the border between midbrain and anterior hindbrain. Otx2 expression is maintained long after this organizer is(More)