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We describe a general method to quantitate the total number of initial targets present in a sample using limiting dilution, PCR and Poisson statistics. The DNA target for the PCR was the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene derived from a leukemic clone that was quantitated against a background of excess rearranged IgH genes from normal(More)
A method is described for the purification of monoclonal antibody from mouse ascitic fluid. The fluid is clarified and the lipid removed using silicon dioxide powder, before the immunoglobulin is precipitated using polyethylene glycol. The method provides IgM antibody in high yield and good purity. In the case of IgG antibodies the purity is 30-40% after(More)
The use of peripheral blood rather than marrow has potential advantages for monitoring minimal residual disease during the treatment of leukaemia. To determine the feasibility of using blood, we used a sensitive polymerase chain reaction method to quantify leukaemia in the blood and marrow in 35 paired samples from 15 children during induction treatment.(More)
Human transferrin is shown to bind 2 mol of aluminium per mol of protein using spectrophotometric titration. Competitive equilibrium between aluminium and ferric ions for transferrin binding sites is observed, and a value of 2.5 (+/- 0.4) X 10(15) M-1 is found for the apparent binding constant under physiological conditions.
Gene rearrangement and monoclonality have been detected in normal cells and in lymphoproliferative disease by using the polymerase chain reaction and primers for the V and J regions of the Ig heavy chain gene or T-cell receptor gamma-chain gene. Using the Ig primers monoclonality was detected in 20 of 20 normal B-lymphocyte clones and in 39 of 52 cases of(More)
Methods to detect and quantify minimal residual disease (MRD) after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) could improve treatment by identifying patients who need more or less intensive therapy. We have used a clone-specific polymerase chain reaction to detect rearranged immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene from the leukaemic clone, and quantified(More)
Groups of mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of one of six monoclonal antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, a mixture of equal amounts of five monoclonal antibodies to T. gondii, or the murine myeloma protein MOPC 21, and challenged with either a highly virulent or moderately virulent parasite strain. Two monoclonal antibodies (FMC 19 and FMC 22)(More)
The level of minimal residual disease (MRD) in marrow early in treatment strongly predicts outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Using PCR we studied 30 pairs of aspirates and trephines taken during induction treatment. Consensus PCR primers showed a monoclonal gene rearrangement in eight pairs, polyclonal rearrangement in 18 pairs and a(More)
In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) at the end of induction strongly predicts outcome, presumably because it measures both drug sensitivity and the number of leukemic cells requiring elimination. Children with high levels (> 10(-3) leukemic cells per marrow cell) nearly always relapse, whereas(More)