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Autism is a disorder of neurodevelopment resulting in pervasive abnormalities in social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviours and restricted interests. There is evidence for functional abnormalities and metabolic dysconnectivity in 'social brain' circuitry in this condition, but its structural basis has proved difficult to establish reliably.(More)
We report the first voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study to examine cerebral grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using computational morphometry in never-medicated, first-episode psychosis (FEP). Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was also performed blind to group membership. 26 never-medicated individuals with FEP (23 with DSM-IV(More)
Hallucinations, perceptions in the absence of external stimuli, are prominent among the core symptoms of schizophrenia. The neural correlates of these brief, involuntary experiences are not well understood, and have not been imaged selectively. We have used new positron emission tomography (PET) methods to study the brain state associated with the(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to investigate cerebral structural connectivity in never-medicated individuals with first-episode schizophrenia. METHOD Subjects with first-episode schizophrenia according to DSM-IV-R who had never been exposed to antipsychotic medication (n=25) and healthy controls (n=26) were recruited. Groups were(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive neuropsychological theories hypothesize a role for frontal lobe executive deficits in the aetiology of schizophrenic symptoms. The study examined the performance of a schizophrenic group on the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS; Wilson et al. 1996), a test battery which assesses the 'everyday' difficulties(More)
BACKGROUND The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One(More)
BACKGROUND We and others have reported that patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis already have significant structural brain abnormalities. Antipsychotics seem to reverse subcortical volume deficits after months of treatment. However, the early impact of medication on brain morphology is not known. METHOD Forty-eight individuals in their(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with autism have impairments in 3 domains: communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviours. Our previous work suggested early structural and connectivity abnormalities in prefrontal-striato-temporal-cerebellar networks but it is not clear how these are linked to diagnostic indices. METHOD Children with autism (IQ > 70)(More)
BACKGROUND Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance imaging(More)
The neuroanatomical basis of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is postulated to involve brain circuitry responsible for attention and executive function. Relatively new automated methods of MRI analysis allow rapid examination of each volume element (voxel) of whole brain, therefore we planned a comprehensive quantitative examination of brain(More)