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Autism is a disorder of neurodevelopment resulting in pervasive abnormalities in social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviours and restricted interests. There is evidence for functional abnormalities and metabolic dysconnectivity in 'social brain' circuitry in this condition, but its structural basis has proved difficult to establish reliably.(More)
BACKGROUND The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One(More)
We report the first voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study to examine cerebral grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using computational morphometry in never-medicated, first-episode psychosis (FEP). Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was also performed blind to group membership. 26 never-medicated individuals with FEP (23 with DSM-IV(More)
The neuroanatomical basis of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is postulated to involve brain circuitry responsible for attention and executive function. Relatively new automated methods of MRI analysis allow rapid examination of each volume element (voxel) of whole brain, therefore we planned a comprehensive quantitative examination of brain(More)
BACKGROUND MPAs (minor physical anomalies) frequently occur in neurodevelopmental disorders because both face and brain are derived from neuroectoderm in the first trimester. Conventionally, MPAs are measured by evaluation of external appearance. Using MRI can help overcome inherent observer bias, facilitate multi-centre data acquisition, and explore how(More)
BACKGROUND Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance imaging(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-psychotic treatment appears to be associated with striatal volume increase, but how early this change occurs is still unknown. METHODS A single prospective cohort of 20 anti-psychotic-naïve patients, newly diagnosed with schizophrenia, underwent magnetic resonance imaging brain scan at baseline. This was repeated following up to 8 weeks of(More)
Maternal infection during prenatal life is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. We and others have reported white mater microstructure abnormalities in prefrontal-striato-temporal networks in these disorders. In addition we have shown that early rather than late maternal immune challenge in(More)
Previous studies of face processing in autism suggest abnormalities in anatomical development, functioning and connectivity/coordination of distributed brain systems involved in social cognition, but the spatial sequence and time course of rapid (sub-second) neural responses to emotional facial expressions have not been examined in detail. Source analysis(More)
BACKGROUND Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties with executive function and impulse control which may improve with age. AIMS To map the brain correlates of executive function in ADHD and determine age-related changes in reaction times and brain volumes. METHOD Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and(More)