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A comparative analysis of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-and the proteins they are predicted to encode-was undertaken in the context of cellular, developmental, and evolutionary processes. The nonredundant protein sets of flies and worms are similar in size and are only twice that of yeast, but(More)
NMDA receptors are present at glutamatergic synapses throughout the brain, and are important for the development and plasticity of neural circuits. Their subunit composition is developmentally regulated. We have investigated the developmental profile of functional synaptic NMDA receptor subunits in dopaminergic neurones of the substantia nigra pars compacta(More)
The nigra substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and substantia pars reticulata (SNr) form two major basal ganglia components with different functional roles. SNc dopaminergic (DA) neurones are vulnerable to cell death in Parkinson's disease, and NMDA receptor activation is a potential contributing mechanism. We have investigated the sensitivity of whole-cell(More)
The genome of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis was found to be a stable mosaic of methylated and nonmethylated domains. Multiple copies of an apparently active long terminal repeat retrotransposon and a long interspersed element are nonmethylated and a large fraction of abundant short interspersed elements are also methylation free. Genes, by(More)
Climate change and biological invasions are primary threats to global biodiversity that may interact in the future. To date, the hypothesis that climate change will favour non-native species has been examined exclusively through local comparisons of single or few species. Here, we take a meta-analytical approach to broadly evaluate whether non-native(More)
Modeling the biogeographic consequences of climate change requires confidence in model predictions under novel conditions. However, models often fail when extended to new locales, and such instances have been used as evidence of a change in physiological tolerance, that is, a fundamental niche shift. We explore an alternative explanation and propose a(More)
Gene number can be considered a pragmatic measure of biological complexity, but reliable data is scarce. Estimates for vertebrates are 50-100,000 genes per haploid genome, whereas invertebrate estimates fall below 25,000. We wished to test the hypothesis that the origin of vertebrates coincided with extensive gene creation. A prediction is that gene number(More)
Bone cells express glutamate-gated Ca2+-permeable N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and GLAST glutamate transporters. Blocking NMDA receptors has been reported to reduce the number of bone resorption pits produced by osteoclasts, and mechanical loading alters GLAST transporter expression, which should change the extracellular glutamate concentration and(More)
NMDA glutamate receptors (NMDARs) have critical functional roles in the nervous system but NMDAR over-activity can contribute to neuronal damage. The open channel NMDAR blocker, memantine is used to treat certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and is well tolerated clinically. We have investigated memantine block of NMDARs in(More)
Deer antler is a unique mineralized tissue which can produce very high growth rates of > 1 cm/day in large species. On completion of antler growth, the dermal tissues which cover the antler are shed and the underlying calcified tissue dies. After several months the old antler is discarded and growth of a new one begins. It is known that deer antlers are(More)