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Stable expression of Foxp3 in regulatory T cells (Tregs) depends on DNA demethylation at the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR), a conserved, CpG-rich region within the Foxp3 locus. The TSDR is selectively demethylated in ex vivo Tregs purified from secondary lymphoid organs, but it is unclear at which stage of Treg development demethylation takes(More)
Previous studies of the adult hippocampus of rodents and primates have reported neuro- and gliogenesis restricted to the region of the dentate gyrus. In the present study, by employing a prolonged bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling protocol that attempts to account for cytokinetic changes as an animal ages, we have identified mitotically active cells in(More)
AIMS In the present study we have investigated the comparative switching propensity of murine peritoneal and splenic B cell subpopulations to IgA in presence of retinoic acid (RA) and TGF-β. METHODS AND RESULTS To study the influence of RA and TGF-β on switching of B cell subpopulations to IgA, peritoneal (B1a, B1b and B2 cells) and splenic (B1a, marginal(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are among the first-line sentinels for immune detection and responsiveness to pathogens. The TLR2 subfamily of TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR6) form heterodimers with each other and are thus able to recognize a broad range of components from several microbes such as yeast, Gram-positive bacteria and protozoa. Until now, TLR2(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are sentinel components of the innate response to pathogens, but the cell types, pathogen recognition receptors, and cytokines required for their activation in vivo are poorly defined. Here, we investigated the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), myeloid DCs (mDCs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and of NK cell stimulatory(More)
An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium has been used as a vehicle for oral genetic immunization. Eukaryotic expression vectors containing truncated genes of ActA and listeriolysin--two virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes--have been used to transform S. typhimurium aroA. Multiple or even single oral immunizations with such transformants induced(More)
The Type I interferons (IFN), beta (IFN-β) and the alpha family (IFN-α), act through a common receptor and have anti-inflammatory effects. IFN-β is used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) and is effective against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. Mice with EAE show elevated levels of Type I IFNs in the central nervous(More)
Type I interferon (IFN), which includes the IFN-alpha and -beta subtypes, plays an essential role in host defense against influenza A virus. However, the relative contribution of IFN-beta remains unresolved. In mice, type I IFN is effective against influenza viruses only if the IFN-induced resistance factor Mx1 is present, though most inbred mouse strains,(More)
The type I interferon (IFN) response plays an important role in the control of many viral infections. However, since there is no rodent animal model for human immunodeficiency virus, the antiviral effect of IFN-alpha and IFN-beta in retroviral infections is not well characterized. In the current study we have used the Friend virus (FV) model to determine(More)