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The electrical membrane potential (E(m)) and electrical membrane resistance (R(m)) were measured continuously during the first cleavage of Xenopus eggs, using intracellular microelectrodes. A sharp hyperpolarization of E(m) and decrease in R(m) can be observed from 6 to 8 min after the onset of cleavage. This moment coincides with the onset of the insertion(More)
Addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to human A431 cells causes a 2-4-fold increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) as measured by quin-2 fluorescence. The EGF effect is rapid but transient: [Ca2+]i reaches a maximum within 30-60 s and then returns to its resting value (182 +/- 3 nM) over a 5-8-min period. The EGF-induced [Ca2+]i rise(More)
The mechanisms by which growth factors stimulate metabolism and cell proliferation are largely unknown. Recent evidence suggests that mitogens rapidly activate a Na+/H+ exchange mechanism in the plasma membrane of their target cells, implicating cytoplasmic pH (pH1) as a potential 'messenger'. Indeed, growth stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts leads to(More)
Parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP), first identified in tumors from patients with the syndrome of "Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy," can replace parathyroid hormone (PTH) in activating the PTH-receptor in responsive cells. Although PTHrP expression is widespread in various adult and fetal tissues, its normal biological function is as yet(More)
Microviscosity (n) of the cell membrane lipid layer was determined in synchronized C1300 mouse neuroblastoma cells (clone Neuro-2A) by fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenystratum. The determined n value was maximal in mitosis, decreased markedly in the G1 phase, remained constant at a low level during the S phase, and increased again during the G2(More)
Differentiated clonal cell lines were isolated from pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells treated as aggregates with retinoic acid. Two were characterized in detail. The lines differ in morphology, proliferation rate, the production of plasminogen activator, and in their mitogenic response to insulin but both produce extracellular matrix proteins(More)
The formation of specialized intercellular junctions, allowing the passage of low-molecular weight regulatory molecules, has been considered as a possible mechanism for regulating embryonic development. No direct evidence for this concept has been found in early development. In the mollusc Pattella vulgata it was demonstrated that cell positioning and(More)
Aggregation of pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells in the presence of DMSO induces differentiation to various mesodermal cell types, including spontaneously contracting muscle. We have established clonal cell lines from these cultures and characterized one (MES-1) in particular for its response to growth factors. In contrast to the(More)
In conjunction with a previous analysis of the electrical networks formed by the Xenopus embryo during development from the 2-cell stage to the 16-cell stage, some theoretical aspects are investigated. A computer simulation method for the derivation of the specific membrane resistances from the measured equivalent resistances between different compartments(More)