Sidney E. Croul

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Soluble products of activated immune cells include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) with a high potential to induce biochemical modifications and degenerative changes in areas of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Previously, we demonstrated an increased production of ROS by activated mononuclear cells (MNC) of patients(More)
Increases in circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes have been associated with HIV dementia; trafficking of these cells into the CNS has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-induced neurological disorders. This model suggests that events outside the CNS leading to monocyte activation initiate the process leading to HIV dementia. To(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a conformational disease in which misfolding and aggregation of proteins such as SOD1 (familial ALS) and TDP-43 (sporadic ALS) are central features. The conformations adopted by such proteins within motor neurons in affected patients are not well known. We have developed a novel conformation-specific antibody (USOD)(More)
JC virus (JCV) is a neurotropic polyomavirus infecting greater than 70% of the human population worldwide during early childhood. Replication of JCV in brains of individuals with impaired immune systems results in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Furthermore, JCV possesses an oncogenic potential and induces(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of robust biomarkers of malignancy and methods to establish disease progression is a major goal in paediatric neuro-oncology. We investigated whether methylation of the TERT promoter can be a biomarker for malignancy and patient outcome in paediatric brain tumours. METHODS For the discovery cohort, we used samples obtained from(More)
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, arises in the cerebellum and disseminates through the cerebrospinal fluid in the leptomeningeal space to coat the brain and spinal cord. Dissemination, a marker of poor prognosis, is found in up to 40% of children at diagnosis and in most children at the time of recurrence. Affected(More)
The broad range of histological lesions associated with HIV-1 are somewhat subtle relative to the clinical manifestations that occur as a result of HIV infection. Although it is clear that HIV has a causative role in CNS disease, dementia appears to be a consequence of the infiltration of inflammatory cells and cytokine dysregulation rather than the amount(More)
Here the authors discuss evidence in human and animal models supporting two opposing views regarding the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the central nervous system (CNS): (1) HIV infection in the CNS is a compartmentalized infection, with the virus-infected macrophages entering the CNS early, infecting resident microglia and(More)
OBJECTIVE Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the white matter affecting immunocompromised patients that results from the cytolytic destruction of glial cells by the human neurotropic JC virus (JCV). According to one model, during the course of immunosuppression, JCV departs from its latent state in the(More)
Although medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor, its molecular underpinnings are largely unknown. We have identified rare, recurrent homozygous deletions of Kruppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) in medulloblastoma using high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, digital karyotyping, and genomic real-time polymerase chain(More)