Sidhartha D. Ray

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Free radicals and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. We have demonstrated that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides superior(More)
We have investigated the effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE) on lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c reduction, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death in normal human oral keratinocyte cells, and assessed the protective abilities of selected antioxidants. The cells, isolated and cultured from human oral tissues, were treated with STE (0-300(More)
Diclofenac (DCLF) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is widely used for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and acute muscle pain conditions. Toxic doses of DCLF can cause nephrotoxicity in humans and experimental animals. However, whether this DCLF-induced nephrotoxicity involves apoptotic cell death in(More)
Hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen cause early impairment of Ca2+ homeostasis in the liver. This in vivo study considers the nucleus as a possible site of lethal Ca2+ action by evaluating whether acetaminophen raises Ca2+ in this compartment, whether DNA becomes altered, and whether DNA changes occur early enough during injury to contribute causally to(More)
Free radicals have been implicated in over a hundred disease conditions in humans, including arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, advancing age, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many organs, Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, tumor promotion and carcinogenesis, and AIDS. Antioxidants are potent scavengers of free(More)
Ca2+ accumulates in the nucleus and DNA undergoes enzymatic cleavage into internucleosome-length fragments before acetaminophen and dimethylnitrosamine produce hepatic necrosis in vivo and toxic cell death in vitro. However, Ca(2+)-endonuclease fragmentation of DNA is characteristic of apoptosis, a type of cell death considered biochemically and(More)
This study of acetaminophen (AAP) hepatotoxicity examined whether some aspects of the highly integrated process of drug-induced toxicity involves apoptosis, in addition to necrosis in vivo; and if so, whether cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CS) pretreatment would selectively interfere with apoptotic or necrotic liver cell death. We have previously demonstrated(More)
ROS, RNS, BRIs and ROS-RNS hybrids are produced during drug or chemical metabolism in vivo. These reactive species are instrumental to the culmination of cellular oxidative stress (OS). OS, once turned on, does not spare any vital intracellular macromolecule, such as glutathione, DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes, lipids and ATP. Since concentration gradients of(More)
Hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen cause widespread alkylation of liver and early loss of cytosolic Ca2+ regulation. Although the precise location and target of lethal alkylation are not known, Ca2+ accumulation is viewed as a possible link between cell alkylation and cell death. We have recently shown that Ca2+ accumulates in the nucleus and that DNA(More)
Several molecular events in the apoptotic or necrotic death of hepatocytes induced by acetaminophen (AAP) now appear to be well defined. Recent studies also indicate that select expression of bcl-Xl is possibly modified during AAP-induced liver injury. The purpose of this study was several-fold: (i) to examine the hepatoprotective ability of short-term(More)