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Venomous marine cone snails produce a unique and remarkably diverse range of venom peptides (conotoxins and conopeptides) that have proven to be invaluable as pharmacological probes and leads to new therapies. Conus catus is a hook-and-line fish hunter from clade I, with ∼20 conotoxins identified, including the analgesic ω-conotoxin CVID (AM336). The(More)
Most venomous predators have evolved complex venom primarily to immobilize their prey and secondarily to defend against predators. In a new paradigm, carnivorous marine gastropods of the genus Conus were shown to rapidly and reversibly switch between two types of venoms in response to predatory or defensive stimulus, suggesting that the defensive use of(More)
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