Siddharthan Chandran

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TDP-43 is a predominantly nuclear RNA-binding protein that forms inclusion bodies in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mRNA targets of TDP-43 in the human brain and its role in RNA processing are largely unknown. Using individual nucleotide-resolution ultraviolet cross-linking and immunoprecipitation(More)
The RNA-binding protein TDP-43 regulates RNA metabolism at multiple levels, including transcription, RNA splicing, and mRNA stability. TDP-43 is a major component of the cytoplasmic inclusions characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and some types of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The importance of TDP-43 in disease is underscored by the fact(More)
Transactive response DNA-binding (TDP-43) protein is the dominant disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a subgroup of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). Identification of mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (TARDBP) in familial ALS confirms a mechanistic link between misaccumulation of TDP-43 and neurodegeneration and(More)
The pathological correlate of clinical disability and progression in multiple sclerosis is neuronal and axonal loss; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Abnormal phosphorylation of tau is a common feature of some neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the presence of tau hyperphosphorylation and its(More)
We have established and efficient system to specify NG2/PDGF-Rα/OLIG2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at low, physiological (3%) oxygen levels. This was achieved via both forebrain and spinal cord origins, with up to 98% of cells expressing NG2. Developmental insights reveal a critical role for fibroblast(More)
Glial proliferation and activation are associated with disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar dementia. In this study, we describe a unique platform to address the question of cell autonomy in transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) proteinopathies. We generated functional astroglia from human induced(More)
Interactions of CNS cells lead to the establishment of complex neural systems. Specifically, oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths around axons that enable rapid electrical conduction of impulses. Recent evidence has emerged that oligodendrocytes may also release trophic factors promoting neuronal survival. We therefore studied the effects of factors(More)
Haskew-Layton et al. (1) reported that subtoxic doses of H2O2 fails to activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in astrocytes and triggers Nrf2-independent responses that protect cocultured neurons. Contrary to this, we show that mild oxidative insults, including subtoxic H2O2, strongly activate astrocytic Nrf2/antioxidant response element(More)
During development, spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) originate from the ventral, but not dorsal, neuroepithelium. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) has crucial effects on oligodendrocyte production in the ventral region of the spinal cord; however, less is known regarding SHH signalling and oligodendrocyte generation from neural stem cells (NSCs). We show(More)
Human pluripotent stem cells from embryonic origins and those generated from reprogrammed somatic cells share many characteristics, including indefinite proliferation and a sustained capacity to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. However, it remains to be demonstrated whether both cell types rely on similar mechanisms to maintain their(More)