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Norepinephrine, acetylcholine and GABA levels alter during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and its deprivation. Increased synthesis of those neurotransmitters is necessary for their sustained release. Hence, in this study, the concentrations of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzymes(More)
BACKGROUND Sensory encoding deficits have been extensively studied as endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia using auditory evoked potentials. In order to increase understanding of the neurochemical basis of such deficits, we utilized an animal model to test whether monoamine reuptake inhibition and nicotine receptor antagonism reduce the amplitude and(More)
Rapid eye movement sleep plays a vital role in the survival of animals. Its deprivation causes alterations in brain functions and behaviors including activities of important enzymes, neurotransmitter levels, impairment of neural excitability and memory consolidation. However, there was a lack of knowledge regarding the effects of rapid eye movement sleep(More)
Hypoxic hyperventilation in cats is a reflex normally initiated by afferent impulses originating in the carotid body and conducted to the brain stem by the carotid sinus nerves. The reflex response is abolished acutely after section of carotid sinus nerves and excision of the carotid bodies; but, chronically, there is a chemoreflex restoration which is(More)
BACKGROUND In order to identify the role of mononuclear cells in pancreatitis, the immune picture at the cellular level has been studied. The cytokine production at the individual cell level in response to in vitro stimulation can help in identifying the percentage of specific cell types producing a particular cytokine. METHODS A total of 30 patients with(More)
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