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The spatial organization of the genome is intimately linked to its biological function, yet our understanding of higher order genomic structure is coarse, fragmented and incomplete. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, interphase chromosomes occupy distinct chromosome territories, and numerous models have been proposed for how chromosomes fold within(More)
A large number of cis-regulatory sequences have been annotated in the human genome, but defining their target genes remains a challenge. One strategy is to identify the long-range looping interactions at these elements with the use of chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques. However, previous studies lack either the resolution or coverage to(More)
SUMMARY We propose a parametric model, HiCNorm, to remove systematic biases in the raw Hi-C contact maps, resulting in a simple, fast, yet accurate normalization procedure. Compared with the existing Hi-C normalization method developed by Yaffe and Tanay, HiCNorm has fewer parameters, runs >1000 times faster and achieves higher reproducibility. (More)
Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual's cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could have tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant(More)
1. Supplementary Methods 1.1. Experimental methods and materials 1.2. Sequencing reads mapping and ChIP-seq peak calling 1.3. Method to identify chromatin interactions 1.3.1. Hi-C data pre-processing at read level, and virtual 3C plot for visualization 1.3.2. Hi-C data error structure analysis, and further fragment-level filtering based on strand(More)
Knowledge of spatial chromosomal organizations is critical for the study of transcriptional regulation and other nuclear processes in the cell. Recently, chromosome conformation capture (3C) based technologies, such as Hi-C and TCC, have been developed to provide a genome-wide, three-dimensional (3D) view of chromatin organization. Appropriate methods for(More)
Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing facilitate variant discovery and genotyping, but linking variants into a single haplotype remains challenging. Here we demonstrate HaploSeq, an approach for assembling chromosome-scale haplotypes by exploiting the existence of 'chromosome territories'. We use proximity ligation and sequencing to show that alleles(More)
Higher-order chromatin structure is emerging as an important regulator of gene expression. Although dynamic chromatin structures have been identified in the genome, the full scope of chromatin dynamics during mammalian development and lineage specification remains to be determined. By mapping genome-wide chromatin interactions in human embryonic stem (ES)(More)
Allelic differences between the two homologous chromosomes can affect the propensity of inheritance in humans; however, the extent of such differences in the human genome has yet to be fully explored. Here we delineate allelic chromatin modifications and transcriptomes among a broad set of human tissues, enabled by a chromosome-spanning haplotype(More)
The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is maintained by a small group of master transcription factors including Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. These core factors form a regulatory circuit controlling the transcription of a number of pluripotency factors including themselves. Although previous studies have identified transcriptional regulators of this core(More)