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Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon(More)
In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with(More)
The taxonomic status of the pheasant superspecies Lophura leucomelanos and Lophura nycthemera has been unclear since 1948. Molecular techniques provided the opportunity to clarify the situation. Using sequences of mitochondrial DNA (800 nucleotides from the D-loop, plus 400 from the cyt b) from 49 specimens belonging to 10 subspecies (plus two outgroups),(More)
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