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Objective: To evaluate the effects of oral delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) on MRI lesion activity and load, atrophy, and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measures from the Comparator and an Oral Fumarate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (CONFIRM) study. Methods: CONFIRM was a 2-year, placebo-controlled(More)
We asked whether regenerating hindlimb motor axons would innervate inappropriate hindlimb regions if competition from appropriate innervation were prevented. The three ventral roots that innervate the hindlimb in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpole were transected, and the two more rostral roots were ligated to prevent regeneration. The most caudal(More)
BACKGROUND Managing multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment presents challenges for both patients and health care professionals. Effective communication between patients with MS and their neurologist is important for improving clinical outcomes and quality of life. METHODS A closed-ended online market research survey was used to assess the current state of MS(More)
In order to determine whether spinal motoneurons can regenerate to their proper targets at stages beyond those when such specificity is typically expressed, autologous and homologous (same- and cross-stage) hindlimb transplantations were performed using bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana). Neuromuscular specificity was assessed by applying horseradish(More)
The number of motoneurons in the lumbar lateral motor column (LMC) was compared in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) ranging in body length from 2.5 to 19 cm. Large frogs had 36% more motoneurons than small frogs; however, within the caudal third of the LMC, large frogs had over 70% more motoneurons than small frogs. Injection of small frogs with [3H]thymidine(More)
AIM The objective of this Delphi analysis was to obtain consensus on injection-site reaction (ISR) experience and mitigation strategies for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis switching from nonpegylated interferons (IFNs) to peginterferon β-1a in the ALLOW Phase IIIb trial using a three-step approach. METHODS Study investigators and(More)
Background: Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF), indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), is a disease-modifying therapy with potential immunomodulatory and neuropro-tective effects. In clinical trials, DMF was associated with reduced white blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts. Current US prescribing(More)
Neuron number among somatic motoneurons, sensory neurons, and sympathetic postganglionic neurons that innervate the hindlimb was correlated with body length in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Two to three times more dorsal root and sympathetic ganglion neurons are found in the largest than the smallest specimens. Hindlimb motoneurons show a 20% increase in(More)
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