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BACKGROUND This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 3, 2010.For many patients with head and neck cancer, oral nutrition will not provide adequate nourishment during treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy due to the acute toxicity of treatment, obstruction caused by the tumour, or both. The optimal(More)
that are known to play a part in the engulfment and removal of cell debris following brain injury. Although their function in the uninjured brain is unknown, new data suggests that they might have an important role in synapse elimination and pruning during development — a crucial stage of circuit formation. To visualize microglia and synapses in the mouse(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether age-related increase in concentrations of circulating inflammatory mediators is due to concurrent increases in cardiovascular risk factors or is independent of these. METHODS AND RESULTS Cytokines (IL-6, IL-18), chemokines (6Ckine, MCP-1, IP-10), soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin) and adipokines(More)
Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by severe early onset periodontitis and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. A previously reported missense mutation in the CTSC gene (NM_001814.4:c.899G>A:p.(G300D)) was identified in a homozygous state in two siblings diagnosed with PLS in a consanguineous family of Arabic ancestry.(More)
Cancers of the head and neck include oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, nasal fossa, paranasal sinuses, thyroid, salivary glands and vermilion surfaces (Parker et al, 2004). Incidence of these cancers has risen in the past 30 years, particularly in people under the age of 65 years. Risk factors include cigarette smoking and excessive(More)
NATURE REVIEWS | NEUROSCIENCE VOLUME 12 | MAY 2011 A mutation in the gene encoding the postsynaptic density (PSD) protein SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein 3 (SHANK3) has been identified by genetic screens as a candidate for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and is thought to be a crucial determinant of the behavioural deficits in the ASD(More)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are diseases that have overlapping cognitive and behavioural symptoms. The most common genetic cause known for both disorders is a G4C2 repeat expansion on chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), and thus FTD and ALS with this genetic abnormality are collectively referred to as c9FTD/ALS. The currently poor(More)
and provide trophic support, which is essential for long-term maintenance of the axon and oligodendrocyte as a functional unit. The mechanisms by which this is achieved are not known, but Frühbeis, Fröhlich et al. now demonstrate that oligodendrocytederived exosomes (cargo-containing microvesicles) are important for this process. Oligodendrocytes are(More)