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The phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX at DNA double-strand breaks is believed to be critical for recognition and repair of DNA damage. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating the exchange of variant H2AX with conventional H2A in the context of the nucleosome. Here, we isolate the H2AX-associated factors, which include FACT(More)
Proper DNA methylation patterns are essential for mammalian development and differentiation. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) primarily establish and maintain global DNA methylation patterns; however, the molecular mechanisms for the generation and inheritance of methylation patterns are still poorly understood. We used sucrose density gradients of(More)
Hypomethylation of DNA repetitive elements is a common finding in cancer, but very little is known about the DNA methylation changes of different types of DNA repetitive elements, such as interspersed repeats (LINE1 and Alu Yb8) and tandem repeats (Sat-alpha, NBL-2 and D4Z4). We used bisulfite-PCR Pyrosequencing to quantitatively measure the DNA methylation(More)
2'-Deoxy-N4-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethoxycarbonyl]-5-azacytidine (NPEOC-DAC), decitabine with a modification of the N4 position of the azacitidine ring can be used to inhibit DNA methyltransferase. This modification protects the azacitidine ring and can be cleaved by carboxylesterase to release decitabine. NPEOC-DAC was 23-fold less potent at low doses(More)
DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) play an important role in establishing and maintaining DNA methylation. Aberrant expression of DNMTs and their isoforms has been found in many types of cancer, and their contribution to aberrant DNA methylation has been proposed. Here, we generated HEK 293T cells stably transfected with each of 13 different DNMTs (DNMT1, two(More)
Ectopic expression of the double homeodomain transcription factor DUX4 causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Mechanisms of action of DUX4 are currently unknown. Using immortalized human myoblasts with a titratable DUX4 transgene, we identify by mass spectrometry an interaction between the DUX4 C-terminus and the histone acetyltransferases(More)
Monoamine oxidase catalyzes the oxidative deamination of a number of neurotransmitters. A deficiency in monoamine oxidase A results in aggressive behavior in both humans and mice. Studies on the regulation of monoamine oxidase A gene expression have shown that the Sp1 family is important for monoamine oxidase A expression. To search for novel transcription(More)
The transcription factor Runx1 (AML1) is a central regulator of hematopoiesis and is required for the formation of definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Runx1 is alternatively expressed from two promoters: the proximal (P2) prevails during primitive hematopoiesis, while the distal (P1) dominates in definitive HSCs. Although some transcription factor(More)
Fluoxetine is an anorexic agent known to reduce food intake and weight gain. However, the molecular mechanism by which fluoxetine induces anorexia has not been well-established. We examined mRNA expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the brain regions of rats using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization techniques after 2(More)
Azacitidine and decitabine are cytidine analogues that inhibit DNA methylation, and are used to treat myeloid haematological malignancies. Hydroxycarbamide (HC) (also known as hydroxyurea), a ribonucleotide reductase (RR) inhibitor, blocks the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, and is also used to treat leukaemia and sickle-cell disease.(More)