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Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic protozoan disease that is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Poor and neglected populations in East Africa and the Indian sub-continent are particularly affected. Early and accurate diagnosis and treatment remain key components of VL control. In addition to improved diagnostic tests, accurate and simple tests(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal disease endemic to large parts of Asia and Africa, primarily caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Here, we report a high-quality reference genome sequence for a strain of L. donovani from Nepal, and use this sequence to study variation in a set of 16 related clinical lines, isolated from(More)
  • Shyam Sundar
  • Tropical medicine & international health : TM…
  • 2001
Throughout the world, pentavalent antimonial compounds (Sb(v)) have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for more than 50 years. Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days). But in the early 1980s reports of its ineffectiveness emerged, and(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis is common in less developed countries, with an estimated 500000 new cases each year. Because of the diversity of epidemiological situations, no single diagnosis, treatment, or control will be suitable for all. Control measures through case finding, treatment, and vector control are seldom used, even where they could be useful. There(More)
In India, 320 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (209 in the state of Bihar and 11 in the neighboring state of Uttar Pradesh) received identical pentavalent antimony (Sb) treatment. Sb induced long-term cure in 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-42%) of those in Bihar versus 86% (95% CI, 79%-93%) of those in Uttar Pradesh. In Bihar, the center of the(More)
BACKGROUND A firm diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) requires demonstration of the parasite in organ aspirates or tissue biopsy samples. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of non-invasive testing for antibody to the leishmanial antigen K39 by means of antigen-impregnated nitrocellulose paper strips adapted(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease characterized by uncontrolled parasitization of the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Interleukin (IL)-10 has been implicated in the suppression of host immunity in human VL based on the elevated levels of IL-10 observed in plasma and lesional tissue, and its role in preventing clearance of Leishmania(More)
BACKGROUND There are 500,000 cases per year of visceral leishmaniasis, which occurs primarily in the Indian subcontinent. Almost all untreated patients die, and all the effective agents have been parenteral. Miltefosine is an oral agent that has been shown in small numbers of patients to have a favorable therapeutic index for Indian visceral leishmaniasis.(More)
Development of an effective immunoprophylactic agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has become imperative due to the increasing number of cases of drug resistance and relapse. Live and killed whole parasites as well as fractionated and recombinant preparations have been evaluated for vaccine potential. However, a successful vaccine against the disease has(More)