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The toxin beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been proposed to contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Parkinsonism Dementia Complex of Guam (ALS/PDC) based on its ability to induce a similar disease phenotype in primates and its presence in cycad seeds, which constituted a dietary item in afflicted populations. Concerns about the apparent low potency(More)
Excitotoxicity (caused by over-activation of glutamate receptors) and inflammation both contribute to motor neuron (MN) damage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other diseases of the spinal cord. Microglial and astrocytic activation in these conditions results in release of inflammatory mediators, including the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha(More)
Observations of elevated CSF glutamate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), together with findings that motor neurons are selectively vulnerable to glutamate receptor-mediated ("excitotoxic") injury, support an excitotoxic contribution to the motor neuron loss in the disease. However, the basis of the apparent loss of astrocytic glutamate transport(More)
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