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OBJECTIVE The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist fingolimod (FTY720), that has shown efficacy in advanced multiple sclerosis clinical trials, decreases reperfusion injury in heart, liver, and kidney. We therefore tested the therapeutic effects of fingolimod in several rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia. To assess the translational(More)
The glutamate receptor was one of the most intensely investigated targets for neuroprotection. However, numerous clinical trials of glutamate receptor antagonists for the treatment of stroke were unsuccessful. These failures have led to pessimism in the field. But recent advances could provide hope for the future. This minireview looks beyond the(More)
Historically, the neuron has been the conceptual focus for almost all of neuroscience research. In recent years, however, the concept of the neurovascular unit has emerged as a new paradigm for investigating both physiology and pathology in the CNS. This concept proposes that a purely neurocentric focus is not sufficient, and emphasizes that all cell types(More)
Originally identified as an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is now known to play multiple roles in the CNS, including the direct regulation of neuronal and astrocytic functions. Here, we ask whether VEGF-A can also have a novel role in white matter by modulating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). OPCs were cultured from(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We recently reported that delayed lithium therapy can improve stroke recovery in rats by augmenting neurovascular remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that lithium can promote the expression of growth factors in brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. METHODS Human brain microvascular endothelial cells and primary rat cortical(More)
The neurovascular unit is an emerging concept that emphasizes homeostatic interactions between endothelium and cerebral parenchyma. Here, we show that cerebral endothelium are not just inert tubes for delivering blood, but they also secrete trophic factors that can be directly neuroprotective. Conditioned media from cerebral endothelial cells broadly(More)
The epidemiology of ovine theilreiosis in Gannan Tibet Autonomous Region was investigated. The results of these studies indicate that this disease is endemic in the following counties of Gannan where the vector tick was identified as Haemaphysalis qighaiensis : Luqu, Xiahe, Hezuo, Zhuoni, Lintan, Diebu, Maqu. The disease mainly occurred from March to May(More)
Stroke remains a major health problem worldwide, and is the leading cause of serious long-term disability. Recent findings now suggest that strategies to enhance angiogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia may provide unique opportunities to improve clinical outcomes during stroke recovery. In this mini-review, we survey emerging mechanisms and potential(More)
The biological processes underlying stroke are complex, and patients have a narrow repertoire of therapeutic opportunities. After the National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened the Stroke Progress Review Group in 2001, stroke research shifted from having a purely neurocentric focus to adopting a more integrated view wherein dynamic interactions between(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE because brain endothelial cells exist at the neurovascular interface, they may serve as cellular reporters of brain dysfunction by releasing biomarkers into the circulation. METHODS we used proteomic techniques to screen conditioned media from human brain endothelial cultures subjected to oxidative stress induced by nitric oxide(More)