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Post-translational histone modifications have important regulatory roles in chromatin structure and function. One example of such modifications is histone ubiquitination, which occurs predominately on histone H2A and H2B. Although the recent identification of the ubiquitin ligase for histone H2A has revealed important roles for H2A ubiquitination in Hox(More)
Intermittent administration of PTH stimulates bone formation, but the precise mechanisms responsible for PTH responses in osteoblasts are only incompletely understood. Here we show that binding of PTH to its receptor PTH1R induced association of LRP6, a coreceptor of Wnt, with PTH1R. The formation of the ternary complex containing PTH, PTH1R, and LRP6(More)
Signaling through receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily is mediated by cytoplasmic Smad proteins. It has been demonstrated that Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) facilitates TGFbeta and activin/nodal signaling by recruiting and presenting Smad2/3 to the receptor complex. SARA does not bind Smad1 and hence does not(More)
BMPs and Hox proteins play crucial roles in developmental processes. Beyond their mutual regulation of gene expression, little is known about the relations between their mechanisms of actions. Previously, we have shown that Hoxc8 acts as a downstream repressor in the BMP signaling pathway. Smad1 and Smad6 interact with Hoxc8 and regulate its repression(More)
During Xenopus gastrulation, mesendodermal cells are internalized and display different movements. Head mesoderm migrates along the blastocoel roof, while trunk mesoderm undergoes convergent extension (C&E). Different signals are implicated in these processes. Our previous studies reveal that signals through ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases modulate Xenopus(More)
The neural crest is a highly migratory cell population, unique to vertebrates, that forms much of the craniofacial skeleton and peripheral nervous system. In exploring the cell biological basis underlying this behavior, we have identified an unconventional myosin, myosin-X (Myo10) that is required for neural crest migration. Myo10 is highly expressed in(More)
We present an optimized uniplanar magnetic resonance gradient design specifically tailored for MR imaging applications in developmental biology and histology. Uniplanar gradient designs sacrifice gradient uniformity for high gradient efficiency and slew rate, and are attractive for surface imaging applications where open access from one side of the sample(More)
ErbB signaling has long been implicated in cancer formation and progression and is shown to regulate cell division, migration, and death during tumorigenesis. The functions of the ErbB pathway during early vertebrate embryogenesis, however, are not well understood. Here we report characterization of ErbB activities during early frog development.(More)
ErbB signaling regulates cell adhesion and movements during Xenopus gastrulation, but the downstream pathways involved have not been elucidated. In this study, we show that phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mediate ErbB signaling to regulate gastrulation. Both PI3K and MAPK function sequentially in mesoderm(More)
Caldesmon (CaD) is an important actin modulator that associates with actin filaments to regulate cell morphology and motility. Although extensively studied in cultured cells, there is little functional information regarding the role of CaD in migrating cells in vivo. Here we show that nonmuscle CaD is highly expressed in both premigratory and migrating(More)