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Liver X receptors function as central transcriptional regulators for lipid homeostasis, for which agonists have been developed as potential drugs for treatment of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes. Because dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been implicated in sex hormone-dependent cancers, we investigated the effect of liver X receptor(More)
The enzyme steroid 5 alpha-reductase (EC catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the double bond of a variety of 3-oxo-Delta(4) steroids including the conversion of testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. In humans, 5 alpha-reductase activity is critical for certain aspects of male sexual differentiation, and may be involved in the(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that are involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism. In addition to liver, the brain is another site where LXRs may control cholesterol homeostasis. In the brain, the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is independent from other parts of the body, and its disturbance is associated(More)
T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by(More)
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive component derived from honeybee hive propolis. CAPE has been shown to have antimitogenic, anticarcinogenic, and other beneficial medicinal properties. Many of its effects have been shown to be mediated through its inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. We took a systematic approach to uncover the effects(More)
Alteration of lipid metabolism is commonly observed in sex hormone-dependent cancer cells, yet its mechanistic involvement in cancer cell proliferation and progression is unclear. We have found that the expression of the cholesterol transporter, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), was 15- to 20-fold higher in androgen-dependent than in(More)
Androgen and its receptor (AR) have been reported to have pro- or antiapoptotic functions. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. We report here that androgen and AR promote Bax-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. UV irradiation and ectopic expression of Bax induce apoptosis in AR-positive, but not AR-negative(More)
Most prostate cancer patients develop androgen-independent recurrent prostate tumors a few years after androgen ablation therapy. No therapy, however, has been shown to substantially extend survival in these patients. Previously, we reported that androgen suppresses the growth of androgen-independent LNCaP prostate tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. In(More)
Androgen-dependent human LNCaP 104-S tumor xenografts progressed to androgen-independent relapsed tumors (104-Rrel) in athymic mice after castration. The growth of 104-Rrel tumors was suppressed by testosterone. However, 104-Rrel tumors adapted to androgen and regrew as androgen-stimulated 104-Radp tumors. Androgen receptor expression in tumors and serum(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important regulators of cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose homeostasis. LXR agonists are effective for treatment of murine models of atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Recently we observed that LXR agonists suppressed proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells in vitro and treatment of mice with the LXR(More)