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Auditory signals are transmitted from the inner ear through the brainstem to the higher auditory regions of the brain. Neurons throughout the auditory system are tuned to stimulus frequency, and in many auditory regions are arranged in topographical maps with respect to their preferred frequency. These properties are assumed to arise from the interactions(More)
Unlike the quasitriangular frequency-tuning curves of peripheral neurons, pencil- or spindle-shaped frequency-tuning curves (excitatory areas) have been found in the central auditory systems of many species of animals belonging to different classes. Inhibitory tuning curves (areas) are commonly found on both sides of such "level-tolerant" sharp(More)
In the Jamaican mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, one of the subdivisions of the primary auditory cortex is disproportionately large and over-represents sound at approximately 61 kHz. This area, called the Doppler-shifted constant frequency (DSCF) processing area, consists of neurons extremely sharply tuned to a sound at approximately 61 kHz.(More)
Caenorhabditis elegans unc-44 mutations result in aberrant axon guidance and fasciculation with inappropriate partners. The unc-44 gene was cloned by transposon tagging, and verified by genetic and molecular analyses of six transposon-induced alleles and their revertants. Nucleotide sequence analyses demonstrated that unc-44 encodes a series of putative(More)
Since 1962, physiological data of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons have been controversial: inhibitory, excitatory, or both. An inhibitory effect has been much more frequently observed than an excitatory effect. Recent studies performed with an improved experimental design indicate that corticofugal system mediates a highly focused(More)
Plant microRNAs have a vital role in various abiotic stress responses by regulating gene expression. Heat stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses, and affects plant growth and development, even leading to death. To identify heat-responsive miRNAs at the genome-wide level in Populus, Solexa sequencing was employed to sequence two libraries from(More)
Erwinia amylovora strains, isolated from several host plants in various geographic regions during different years, were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion of the DNA from lysed, agar-embedded cells with rare-cutting restriction enzymes. The banding patterns obtained with enzyme XbaI digests revealed significant differences(More)
The mechanism of growth factor protection against metabolic/excitotoxic insults was examined. The time course of changes in ATP levels, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, intracellular free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i), and cell survival resulting from glucose deprivation were assessed in cultured hippocampal neurons. ATP levels were significantly reduced(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs, generally of 20–23 nt, that down-regulate target gene expression during development, differentiation, growth, and metabolism. In Populus, extensive studies of miRNAs involved in cold, heat, dehydration, salinity, and mechanical stresses have been performed; however, there are few reports profiling the miRNA expression(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target mRNAs in plant growth, development, abiotic stress responses, and pathogen responses. Cold stress is one of the most common abiotic factors affecting plants, and it adversely affects plant growth, development, and spatial distribution. To understand the roles of miRNAs(More)