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We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the consequences of genome triplication, such as structural and(More)
Although most higher plants establish a symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobia is a salient feature of legumes. Despite this host range difference, mycorrhizal and rhizobial invasion shares a common plant-specified genetic programme controlling the early host interaction. One feature distinguishing legumes is(More)
Most higher plant species can enter a root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in which plant carbon is traded for fungal phosphate. This is an ancient symbiosis, which has been detected in fossils of early land plants. In contrast, the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses of plants with bacteria evolved more recently, and are phylogenetically(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a symbiotic bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 was determined. The genome of B. japonicum was a single circular chromosome 9,105,828 bp in length with an average GC content of 64.1%. No plasmid was detected. The chromosome comprises 8317 potential protein-coding genes, one set of rRNA genes and 50(More)
Autophagy is an intracellular process for vacuolar degradation of cytoplasmic components. Thus far, plant autophagy has been studied primarily using morphological analyses. A recent genome-wide search revealed significant conservation among autophagy genes (ATGs) in yeast and plants. It has not been proved, however, that Arabidopsis thaliana ATG genes are(More)
Plants belonging to the legume family develop nitrogen-fixing root nodules in symbiosis with bacteria commonly known as rhizobia. The legume host encodes all of the functions necessary to build the specialized symbiotic organ, the nodule, but the process is elicited by the bacteria. Molecular communication initiates the interaction, and signals, usually(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti strain MAFF303099 was determined. The genome of M. loti consisted of a single chromosome (7,036, 071 bp) and two plasmids, designated as pMLa (351,911 bp) and pMLb (208,315 bp). The chromosome comprises 6752 potential protein-coding genes, two sets of rRNA genes and(More)
Cytokinins, which are central regulators of cell division and differentiation in plants, are adenine derivatives carrying an isopentenyl side chain that may be hydroxylated. Plants have two classes of isopentenyltransferases (IPTs) acting on the adenine moiety: ATP/ADP isopentenyltransferases (in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtIPT1, 3, 4-8) and tRNA IPTs (in(More)
Cytokinins are plant hormones that may play essential and crucial roles in various aspects of plant growth and development. Although the functional significance of exogenous cytokinins as to the proliferation and differentiation of cells has been well documented, the biological roles of endogenous cytokinins have remained largely unknown. The recent(More)
Legume root nodules originate from differentiated cortical cells that reenter the cell cycle and form organ primordia. We show that perception of the phytohormone cytokinin is a key element in this switch. Mutation of a Lotus japonicus cytokinin receptor gene leads to spontaneous development of root nodules in the absence of rhizobia or rhizobial signal(More)