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Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are implicated in regulating plant growth, development, and response to the environment. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown because of the lack of information about their substrates. Using a conditional gain-of-function transgenic system, we demonstrated that the activation of SIPK, a tobacco (Nicotiana(More)
Stomata are specialized epidermal structures that regulate gas (CO(2) and O(2)) and water vapor exchange between plants and their environment. In Arabidopsis thaliana, stomatal development is preceded by asymmetric cell divisions, and stomatal distribution follows the one-cell spacing rule, reflecting the coordination of cell fate specification. Stomatal(More)
MAPK signal transduction modules play crucial roles in regulating many biological processes in plants, and their components are encoded by highly conserved genes. The recent availability of genome sequences for rice and poplar now makes it possible to examine how well the previously described Arabidopsis MAPK and MAPKK gene family structures represent the(More)
Plant sensing of invading pathogens triggers massive metabolic reprogramming, including the induction of secondary antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins. We recently reported that MPK3 and MPK6, two pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, play essential roles in the induction of camalexin, the major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis(More)
Plant responses to ethylene are mediated by regulation of EBF1/2-dependent degradation of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor. Here, we report that the level of EIL1 protein is upregulated by ethylene through an EBF1/2-dependent pathway. Genetic analysis revealed that EIL1 and EIN3 cooperatively but differentially regulate a wide array of(More)
Rapid and localized programmed cell death, known as the hypersensitive response (HR) is frequently associated with plant disease resistance. In contrast to our knowledge about the regulation and execution of apoptosis in animal system, information about plant HR is limited. Recent studies implicated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signaling modules downstream of receptors/sensors that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses in eukaryotes. Plant MAPK cascades play pivotal roles in signaling plant defense against pathogen attack. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the identification(More)
In plants and animals, induced resistance (IR) to biotic and abiotic stress is associated with priming of cells for faster and stronger activation of defense responses. It has been hypothesized that cell priming involves accumulation of latent signaling components that are not used until challenge exposure to stress. However, the identity of such signaling(More)
Abscission is a developmental program that results in the active shedding of infected or nonfunctional organs from a plant body. Here, we establish a signaling pathway that controls abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana from ligand, to receptors, to downstream effectors. Loss of function mutations in Inflorescence Deficient in Abscission (IDA), which encodes a(More)
The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene MEKK1 encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that has been implicated in the activation of the map kinases MPK3 and MPK6 in response to the flagellin elicitor peptide flg22. In this study, analysis of plants carrying T-DNA knockout alleles indicated that MEKK1 is required for flg22-induced(More)