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RATIONALE Electronic noses are successfully used in commercial applications, including detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in the food industry. OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that the electronic nose could identify and discriminate between lung diseases, especially bronchogenic carcinoma. METHODS In a discovery and training phase, exhaled(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a fatal disease of unknown etiology characterized by impaired regulation of pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular growth, is associated with low levels of pulmonary nitric oxide (NO). Based upon its critical role in mediating vasodilation and cell growth, decrease of NO has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH. We(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells are more susceptible to viral infection due to impairment of the innate host defense pathway of nitric oxide (NO). NO synthase-2 (NOS2) expression is absent, and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 activation is reduced in CF. We hypothesized that the IFN-gamma signaling pathway, which leads(More)
Viral infection is the primary cause of respiratory morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF) infants. Here, we identify that host factors allow increased virus replication and cytokine production, providing a mechanism for understanding the severity of virus disease in CF. Increased virus is due to lack of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and 2', 5' oligoadenylate(More)
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is required for induction of the human nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) gene in lung epithelium. Although the human NOS2 promoter region contains many cytokine-responsive elements, the molecular basis of induction is only partially understood. Here, the major cis-regulatory elements that control IFN-gamma-inducible NOS2 gene(More)
The airway mucosal epithelium is the first site of virus contact with the host, and the main site of infection and inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the airway epithelium is vital to antiviral inflammatory and immune defense in the lung. Multiple mechanisms function coordinately to support high-level basal NO synthesis in healthy airway epithelium(More)
Viral infections produce severe respiratory morbidity in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF cells are more susceptible to virus in part because of impaired airway epithelial activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1). As Stat1 is a fundamental regulator of antiviral defenses, we hypothesized that there may be multiple(More)
Quantitations of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been proposed as noninvasive markers of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that exhaled CO is increased in individuals with alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AT) deficiency, who have lung inflammation and injury related to oxidative and proteolytic processes. Nineteen individuals with(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the initiation and promotion of cells to neoplastic growth. In this context, cigarette smoke exposure, the primary risk factor in lung cancer development, leads to high levels of ROS within the human airway. Although well-equipped with an integrated antioxidant defense system consisting of low-molecular weight(More)