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Many real-world applications have problems when learning from imbalanced data sets, such as medical diagnosis, fraud detection, and text classification. Very few minority class instances cannot provide sufficient information and result in performance degrading greatly. As a good way to improve the classification performance of weak learner, some(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has rapidly spread among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China in recent years; the magnitude of the epidemic is unclear. We sought to test 3 hypotheses: (1) The prevalence of both HIV and syphilis among MSM in China is high, (2) the 2 epidemics each have unique geographical distributions, and (3) demographic(More)
—To facilitate software testing and save testing cost, a wide range of machine learning methods have been studied to predict defects in software modules. Unfortunately, the imbalanced nature of this type of data increases the learning difficulty of such a task. Class imbalance learning specializes in tackling classification problems with imbalanced(More)
The CRISPR-Cas systems, as exemplified by CRISPR-Cas9, are RNA-guided adaptive immune systems used by bacteria and archaea to defend against viral infection. The CRISPR-Cpf1 system, a new class 2 CRISPR-Cas system, mediates robust DNA interference in human cells. Although functionally conserved, Cpf1 and Cas9 differ in many aspects including their guide(More)
Class imbalance problems have drawn growing interest recently because of their classification difficulty caused by the imbalanced class distributions. In particular, many ensemble methods have been proposed to deal with such imbalance. However, most efforts so far are only focused on two-class imbalance problems. There are unsolved issues in multiclass(More)
A large body of previous models to predict where people look in natural scenes focused on pixel-level image attributes. To bridge the semantic gap between the predictive power of computational saliency models and human behavior, we propose a new saliency architecture that incorporates information at three layers: pixel-level image attributes, object-level(More)
A thermophilic Bacillus strain NG80-2 growing within the temperature range of 45–73°C (optimum at 65°C) was isolated from a deep subterranean oil-reservoir in northern China. The strain was able to utilize crude oil and liquid paraffin as the sole carbon sources for growth, and the growth with crude oil was accompanied by the production of an unknown(More)
This paper is concerned with the design of a robotic fish and its motion control algorithms. A radio-controlled, four-link biomimetic robotic fish is developed using a flexible posterior body and an oscillating foil as a propeller. The swimming speed of the robotic fish is adjusted by modulating joint's oscillating frequency, and its orientation is tuned by(More)
The in vitro refolding of hen egg-white lysozyme is studied in the presence of various osmolytes. Proline is found to prevent aggregation during protein refolding. However, other osmolytes used in this study fail to exhibit a similar property. Experimental evidence suggests that proline inhibits protein aggregation by binding to folding intermediate(s) and(More)
Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Here we show that autophagy is required for reprogramming of somatic cells to form induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Our data indicate that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is downregulated by Sox2 at an early stage of iPSC(More)