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The P2X7 receptor is a trimeric channel with three binding sites for ATP, but how the occupancy of these sites affects gating is still not understood. Here we show that naive receptors activated and deactivated monophasically at low and biphasically at higher agonist concentrations. Both phases of response were abolished by application of Az10606120, a(More)
BACKGROUND The number of antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) of the adap-tive immune response in vertebrates with jaws is almost unlimited (2.10 12 per individual in humans). This huge diversity results from complex mechanisms in the synthesis of the variable (V) domains, that include DNA molecular rearrangements(More)
Activation of the purinergic P2X(7) receptor leads to the rapid opening of an integral ion channel that is permeable to small cations. This is followed by a gradual increase in permeability to fluorescent dyes by integrating the actions of the pannexin-1 channel. Here, we show that during the prolonged agonist application a rapid current that peaked within(More)
Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development, and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, it remains unclear whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion. We reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell fusion culture(More)
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family that exhibits distinct electrophysiological and pharmacological properties. This includes low sensitivity to ATP, lack of desensitization, a sustained current growth during prolonged receptor stimulation accompanied with development of permeability to large organic cations, and the(More)
We propose to embed overlap priors in variational tracking of the left ventricle (LV) in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) sequences. The method consists of evolving two curves toward the LV endo- and epicardium boundaries. We derive the curve evolution equations by minimizing two functionals each containing an original overlap prior constraint. The latter(More)
This study investigates an efficient algorithm for image segmentation with a global constraint based on the Bhattacharyya measure. The problem consists of finding a region consistent with an image distribution learned a priori. We derive an original upper bound of the Bhattacharyya measure by introducing an auxiliary labeling. From this upper bound, we(More)
Epigenetic modification contributes to the regulation of gene expression and plant development under salinity stress. Here we describe the identification of 49 soybean transcription factors by microarray analysis as being inducible by salinity stress. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR-based expression assay confirmed the salinity stress inducibility of 45 of these(More)
The nucleobase/ascorbate transporter (NAT) proteins, also known as nucleobase/cation symporter 2 (NCS2) proteins, are responsible for the uptake of nucleobases in all kingdoms of life and for the transport of vitamin C in mammals. Despite functional characterization of the NAT family members in bacteria, fungi and mammals, detailed structural information(More)
The bread wheat cultivar Shanrong No.3 (SR3) is a salinity tolerant derivative of an asymmetric somatic hybrid between cultivar Jinan 177 (JN177) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum). To reveal some of the mechanisms underlying its elevated abiotic stress tolerance, both SR3 and JN177 were exposed to iso-osmotic NaCl and PEG stress, and the resulting(More)