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Coordination between the left and right limbs during cyclic movements, which can be characterized by the amplitude of each limb's oscillatory movement and relative phase, is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A pedaling exercise on an ergometer in a recent clinical study revealed several types of coordination disorder in PD patients. These(More)
In our recent reports motor coordination of human lower limbs has been investigated during pedaling a special kind of ergometer which allows its left and right pedals to rotate independently. In particular, relative phase between left and right rotational-velocity waveforms of the pedals and their amplitude modulation have been analyzed for patients with(More)
The walking rhythm is known to show phase shift or "reset" in response to external impulsive perturbations. We tried to elucidate functional roles of the phase reset possibly used for the neural control of locomotion. To this end, a system with a double pendulum as a simplified model of the locomotor control and a model of bipedal locomotion were employed(More)
The Hodgkin-Huxley equations (HH) are parameterized by a number of parameters and shows a variety of qualitatively different behaviors depending on the parameter values. We explored the dynamics of the HH for a wide range of parameter values in the multiple-parameter space, that is, we examined the global structure of bifurcations of the HH. Results are(More)
The human walking movement shows transient changes in response to single short-lived external perturbations, termed "stumbling reactions." During the stumbling reactions, the walking phase is reset. It has been considered that the reactions contribute to stabilizing the motion, but less evidence bridging between the rhythm reset and the dynamic stability of(More)
Heartbeat intervals, which are determined basically by regular excitations of the sinoatrial node, show significant fluctuation referred to as the heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV is mostly due to nerve activities through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In recent years, it has been recognized that the(More)
The human biped walking shows phase- dependent transient changes in gait trajectory in response to external brief force perturbations. Such responses, referred to as the stumbling reactions, are usually accompanied with phase reset of the walking rhythm. Our previous studies provided evidence, based on a human gait experiment and analyses of mathematical(More)
In the Hodgkin-Huxley equations (HH), we have identified the parameter regions in which either two stable periodic solutions with different amplitudes and periods and an equilibrium point or two stable periodic solutions coexist. The global structure of bifurcations in the multiple-parameter space in the HH suggested that the bistabilities of the periodic(More)