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Rapid modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by estrogen has long been a hot topic, but analysis of molecular mechanisms via synaptic estrogen receptors has been seriously difficult. Here, two types of independent synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) and spinogenesis, were investigated, in response to 17beta-estradiol and agonists of(More)
We exploit recent advances in computational topology to study the compressibility of various proteins found in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Our fundamental tool is the persistence diagram, a topological invariant which captures the sizes and robustness of geometric features such as tunnels and cavities in protein molecules. Based on certain physical and(More)
In this paper we partially clarify the relation between the compressibility of a protein and its molecular geometric structure. To identify and understand the relevant topological features within a given protein, we model its molecule as an alpha filtration and hence obtain multi-scale insight into the structure of its tunnels 123 2 M. Gameiro et al. and(More)
Single-strand selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase (SMUG1), previously thought to be a backup enzyme for uracil-DNA glycosylase, has recently been shown to excise 5-hydroxyuracil (hoU), 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU) and 5-formyluracil (fU) bearing an oxidized group at ring C5 as well as an uracil. In the present study, we used site-directed(More)
vitamin D is 25-hydroxylated in the liver, before being activated by 1alpha-hydroxylation in the kidney. Recently, the rat cytochrome P450 2J3 (CYP2J3) has been identified as a principal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase in the rat [Yamasaki T, Izumi S, Ide H, Ohyama Y. Identification of a novel rat microsomal vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase. J Biol Chem(More)
Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play significant roles in the regulation of developmental signaling, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor, Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, through modification of their sulfation patterns. Recent studies have revealed that one of the functions of(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to identify substantially increased proteins in bovine cystic follicular fluid (FF) in order to clarify the pathology and etiology of bovine ovarian follicular cysts (BOFC). METHODS Proteins in normal and cystic FF samples were subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and were(More)
Fertilization is an indispensable step for formation of a zygote in sexual reproduction, leading to species survival. When mating occurs, sperm is transported to the female reproductive tracts via the seminal plasma (SP). SP is derived from male accessory sex glands and it plays pivotal roles for fertilization in animals. However, molecular mechanisms of SP(More)
The mode change of a simple autonomous motor depending on the nature of a monolayer on water is investigated. A camphor disk is floated on a molecular layer of N-stearoyl-p-nitroaniline (C(18)ANA), which gives a surface-pressure (π)-area per molecule (A) isotherm with a local maximum and a local minimum. The nature of the camphor motion changes depending on(More)
We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments(More)