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Variable genomic sequences have been reported for RNA cloned from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected humans and chimpanzees. We found that four distinct genotypes of HCV could be differentially identified by PCR using type-specific primers. Full-length sequences have so far been reported for three of the four HCV genotypes, and we report herewith the sequence(More)
Extensive variability in genomic sequence, especially at "hypervariable regions" within the NS1/E2 region of the long open reading frame, has been reported for RNA cloned from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected humans and chimpanzees. However, genetic changes of HCV occurring during the course of chronic infections in humans and animals have been evaluated(More)
Thirty-four (41%) of 83 hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates from commercial blood donors in Vietnam were not classifiable into genotype I/1a, II/1b, III/2a, IV/2b, or V/3a; for 15 of them, the sequence was determined for 1.6 kb in the 5'-terminal region and 1.1 kb in the 3'-terminal region. Comparison of the 15 Vietnamese isolates among themselves and with(More)
TT virus (TTV) is the only known human virus with single-stranded circular DNA, with a possible but yet unclear relationship to chicken anemia virus (CAV) of the family Circoviridae. Here we report a new human virus resembling TTV and CAV, designated TTV-like mini virus (TLMV). This non-enveloped virus was smaller (< 30 nm) but had a similar density(More)
TT virus (TTV) is a common virus and consists of many genotypes and variants. In addition, there exists a virus which both differs greatly from and retains a considerable resemblance to TTV, such as the TTV-like mini virus (TLMV) as we reported previously. Here we report the near full length genomic sequences of 4 isolates of a new variant of TTV(More)
Zoonosis has been implicated in hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmission. We examined wild boar living in a forest of Hyogo prefecture, Japan, and found HEV RNA in three of seven boars. A full-genome HEV isolate from one of them was revealed to be 99.7% identical to a previous isolate from a wild deer hunted in the same forest and to those from four patients(More)
We have identified four new hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates whose genomic RNA could be amplified by PCR using primers from the 5' untranslated region (UTR), but the RNA could not be detected with genotype I to IV (or types 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b respectively)-specific core region-derived primers. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the new isolates from(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-strand RNA virus, has been recovered not only from human beings but also from various species of animals. Here we report our results suggesting that mongoose should be added to the list of reservoir animals of HEV. Of 100 mongooses we examined in Okinawa, Japan, 21 were thought to be positive for anti-HEV antibodies, among(More)
Zoonosis has been suggested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, but so far is based only on indirect evidence. We experienced a series of cases of HEV infection among people who had eaten uncooked deer meat 6-7 weeks before. On testing, a left over portion of the deer meat, kept frozen to eat in the future, was positive for HEV RNA, whose nucleotide(More)
The interferon (IFN)-inducible MxA protein is known to play an important role in the host defense against certain viruses. We aimed to see if any genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of the MxA gene is associated with the IFN responsiveness of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Initially we sequenced the promoter region of the MxA gene in 12(More)