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OBJECT Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) may produce quadriplegia. The course of future neurological deterioration in patients with radiographic evidence of OPLL, however, is not known. The authors conducted a long-term follow-up cohort study of more than 10 years to clarify the clinical course of this disease progression. METHODS(More)
OBJECT Controversy exists concerning the indications for surgery and choice of surgical procedure for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. The goals of this study were to determine the clinical course of nonsurgically managed patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis as well as the indications for surgery. METHODS A total of 145 nonsurgically(More)
The sedative and analgesic/anesthetic effects of medetomidine, acepromazine, azaperone, droperidol and midazolam were compared in laboratory pigs. In these sedatives, medetomidine produced the most profound degree of sedation with greater drowsiness than was achieved by other sedatives tested. Medetomidine induced sedation accompanied with weak analgesia(More)
OBJECT The goal of this study was to clarify the pathogenesis of myelopathy in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) based on the relationship between static compression factors and dynamic factors. METHODS There was a total of 247 patients, including 167 patients who were conservatively followed for a mean of 11 years(More)
OBJECT In these prospective and retrospective studies the authors evaluated trauma-induced myelopathy in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) to determine the effectiveness of preventive surgery for this disease. METHODS The authors studied 552 patients with cervical OPLL, including 184 with myelopathy at the time of(More)
OBJECT The authors conducted a study to determine age-related changes in expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, -beta2, -beta3, and Type I and Type II receptors in various cells in the nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus. Immunolocalization of TGFbetas and Type I and II receptors was examined during the aging process of cervical(More)
Sedative and analgesic/anesthetic effects induced by a combination of medetomidine and midazolam were evaluated in pigs. This combination exerted a much more potent sedative effect than that induced by a medetomidine alone, even if the dose of medetomidine was reduced to one half, and even if the pigs were stimulated continuously during the induction phase.(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, the Japanese orthopaedic association back pain evaluation questionnaire (JOABPEQ) was established to overcome the limitations of the original JOA scoring system developed in 1986. Although this new self-administered questionnaire is a more accurate outcome measure for evaluating patients with low back pain, physicians were unable to as(More)
BACKGROUND An outcome measure to evaluate the neurological function of patients with cervical myelopathy was proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score) and has been widely used in Japan. However, the JOA score does not include patients' satisfaction, disability, handicaps, or general health, which can be affected by cervical myelopathy. In(More)
OBJECT Little has been published about subclinical spinal canal stenosis due to C-1 hypoplasia in patients with Down syndrome. In this paper the authors performed a matched comparison study with cross-sectional survey to investigate occult spinal canal stenosis due to C-1 hypoplasia in children with Down syndrome. METHODS A total of 102 children with Down(More)