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Mycoplasma iowae is associated mainly with reduced hatchability in turkeys and is well known for the unusual ability of phenotypic variation in the Mycoplasma surface components as well as a relative resistance to heat, bile salts, and many antimicrobials. A subset of unique genes and a gene cluster responsible for these characteristics could be identified(More)
Mannose receptor (MR) is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR) was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio), which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The(More)
Mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a significant role in immune responses. Much work on MRC1 has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this study, we cloned and characterized MRC1 in grass carp (gcMR). The full-length gcMR contained 5291bp encoding a putative protein of 1432 amino acids.(More)
Mannose receptor (MR) plays a significant role in innate immune responses to pathogens in vertebrates. Here we characterized the first teleost MR from Megalobrama amblycephala, named maMR and its expression patterns were investigated. The full-length maMR consists of 5,295 bp encoding a putative protein of 1,433 amino acids. The predicted amino acid(More)
Drosophila Toll and mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved immune receptors that play a crucial role in the first-line defense against intruded pathogens. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, is an important factor that participates in TLR signaling and other(More)
The (p)ppGpp signal molecules play a central role in the stringent response (SR) to adapt to nutrient starvation in bacteria, yet the carbohydrate starvation induced adaptive response and the roles of SR in this response is not well characterized, especially in Gram-positives. Here, two (p)ppGpp synthetases RelA and RelQ are identified in Streptococcus(More)
Streptococcus agalactiae is a pathogen that causes severe anthropozoonosis within a broad range of hosts from aquatic animals to mammals, including human beings. Here, we describe the draft genome of S. agalactiae HZAUSC001, a low-virulent strain isolated from the gut of a moribund tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in China.
Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in host immune defenses by regulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and cytokines, but the functional differences of crustacean Tolls from Drosophila Tolls or Mammal TLRs are largely unknown. A novel Toll receptor, named PcToll3, was identified from red swamp crayfish, Procambarus(More)
In invertebrates, ficolin-like proteins (FLPs) play important roles in innate immunity against pathogens. Previous studies primarily investigated the functions of FLPs in immune recognition, activation, and regulation. However, limited research has examined the functions of FLPs as immune effectors. In this work, a ficolin-like protein was identified in red(More)
Janus kinase (Jak) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is associated in antiviral and antibacterial immune response. Previous studies primarily investigated the function of STATs in mammals. For most invertebrates, only one STAT was found in each species, such as STAT92E was found in Drosophila melanogaster. The(More)