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OBJECTIVE To determine whether the previously noted low prevalence of knee pain (KP) and lumbar pain (LP) in rural southern China compared with the high prevalence observed in North China was also true in a southern urban population. METHODS A population based sample of 2040 adults > or = 16 years of age was studied in Chenghai City, close to the rural(More)
OBJECTIVE To validate the differences of the prevalence of rheumatic symptoms between the north and south part of China and to investigate the associated risk factors for rheumatic complaints in Shantou, China. METHODS Four samples together comprising 10,638 people > or = 16 years of age were surveyed in 1987, 1992, 1995, and 1999. The protocol of the(More)
AIMS Treating to low disease activity is routine in rheumatoid arthritis, but no comparable goal has been defined for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We sought to define and validate a Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS). METHODS A consensus definition of LLDAS was generated using Delphi and nominal group techniques. Criterion validity was(More)
The Chinese virulent (CHv) strain of duck enteritis virus (DEV) has a genome of approximately 162,175 nucleotides with a GC content of 44.89%. Here we report the complete genomic sequence and annotation of DEV CHv, which offer an effective platform for providing authentic research experiences to novice scientists. In addition, knowledge of this virus will(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize components of pathogens and mediate the host innate immune response. TLR21 is a TLR that specifically recognizes exogenous double-stranded DNA and rapidly signals to downstream innate immune factors. This study reports the cDNA of goose TLR21 and identifies its immune characteristics. The goose TLR21 is 3161 base pairs(More)
Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) based on SYBR-Green I binding is a quick, reliable, and easy method for analyzing small amounts of mRNA. Viral pathogens are recognized at the time of infection by pattern recognition receptors; thus, the inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, IL6, and IL18) and antiviral cytokines (IFNα, IFNγ) are secreted(More)
AIM To achieve a better understanding of the pathogenesis of new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) and the relationship between NGVEV and host cells. METHODS The apoptosis of duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) induced by NGVEV was investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and fluorescence microscope after the cells were stained with(More)
Anatid herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus associated with latent infection and mortality in ducks and geese and is currently affecting the world-wide waterfowl production severely. Here we describe a fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR (FQ-PCR) method developed for fast measurement of AHV-1 DNA based on TaqMan MGB technology. The detection(More)
UNLABELLED We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal(More)