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The ciliary body in the eye secretes aqueous humor and glycoproteins of the vitreous body and maintains the intraocular pressure. The ciliary muscle controls the shape of the lens through the ciliary zonules to focus the image onto the retina. During embryonic development, the ciliary epithelium is derived from the optic vesicle, but the molecular signals(More)
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The biosynthesis of serotonin is regulated by two rate-limiting enzymes, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 and -2 (TPH1 and TPH2). We used a gene-targeting approach to generate mice with selective and complete elimination of the two known TPH isoforms.(More)
Normal sensory transduction requires the efficient disposal of acid (H+) generated by neuronal and sensory receptor activity. Multiple highly sensitive transport mechanisms have evolved in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms to maintain acidity within strict limits. It is currently assumed that the multiplicity of these processes provides a biological(More)
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the neuroectoderm differentiates into neural tissues and also into non-neural tissues such as the choroid plexus in the brain and the retinal pigment epithelium in the eye. The molecular mechanisms that pattern neural and non-neural tissues within the neuroectoderm remain unknown. We report that FGF9 is normally expressed in(More)
The alphaA-crystallin promoter was used to target expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) to lens fiber cells in transgenic mice. Surprisingly, lens-specific expression of BMP7 induced widespread apoptosis and rapid ablation of the neural retina in multiple families. Subsequent to retinal ablation, the lens bow region shifted posteriorly until(More)
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) regulates the extracellular concentration of serotonin, influencing neurotransmission. Evidence suggests that 5-HTT is altered during depression, but the precise changes in 5-HTT expression in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression are not clear. We investigated the protein expression of hippocampal 5-HTT in CD-1 mice(More)
Stress influences the development of depression, and depression is associated with structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. The current study sought to determine whether chronic corticosteroid (CORT) treatment influences serotonin transporter (5-HTT) protein expression and function in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions of the(More)
Despite appearing featureless to our eyes, the open ocean is a highly variable environment for polarization-sensitive viewers. Dynamic visual backgrounds coupled with predator encounters from all possible directions make this habitat one of the most challenging for camouflage. We tested open-ocean crypsis in nature by collecting more than 1500(More)
AIM To compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic resection (ER) and surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions. METHODS Databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index, from 2000 to 2016, were searched for eligible articles. In this meta-analysis, the main outcome measurements were local(More)