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Scarlet fever is one of a variety of diseases caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS). During 2011, a scarlet fever epidemic characterized by peak monthly incidence rates 2.9-6.7 times higher than those in 2006-2010 occurred in Beijing, China. During the epidemic, hospital-based enhanced surveillance for scarlet fever and pharyngitis was conducted to(More)
Few studies have investigated the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on ecosystem respiration (Re) under mixed legume and grass pastures sown at different seeding ratios,and data are almost entirely lacking for alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that although a combination of legumes with grass and N fertilizer increases(More)
Subtype specificity of influenza A virus (IAV) is determined by its two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). For HA, 16 distinct subtypes (H1-H16) exist, while nine exist for NA. The epidemic strains of H1N1 IAV change frequently and cause annual seasonal epidemics as well as occasional pandemics, such as the notorious 1918(More)
BACKGROUND In the post-pandemic period, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was expected to circulate seasonally and was introduced into trivalent influenza vaccine during 2010/2011 season in the Northern Hemisphere. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine the evolution of herd immunity against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in Beijing, China, during 2010/2011(More)
The continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of H5 and H7 subtypes and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes in birds and the subsequent infections in humans pose an ongoing pandemic threat. It has been proposed that poultry workers are at higher risk of exposure to HPAI or LPAI viruses and(More)
In northern China, influenza circulates on a seasonal and regular basis during the winter-spring season [1]. Our study was conducted in Beijing between November 2008 and March 2012, specifically from November 2008 to March 2009 (period 1), from November 2009 to March 2010 (period 2), from November 2010 to March 2011 (period 3), and from November 2011 to(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution of emm gene types related to group A streptococcus-caused scarlet fever among children in Beijing and to analyze the relationship between the mutation of the emm types and scarlet fever. METHODS Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from the scarlet fever cases diagnosed in 36 hospitals in Beijing to isolate(More)
Influenza viruses are known for their ability to change their antigenic structure and create new viral strains. Hemagglutinin (HA), for which 16 subtypes have been identified, is a major antigenic determinant essential for the pathogenesis of influenza A viruses. To predict and monitor future epidemics, it is critical to produce various HA subtype antigens(More)
Influenza B viral infection is of great importance, but the epidemiological and phylogenetic characteristics of influenza B infection in severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases are still unclear.The clinical information of 2816 SARI cases and 467,737 influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in Beijing area from September 2014 to April 2015 were collected(More)