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OBJECTIVE Telmisartan, an angiotensin type I receptor blocker (ARB), protects against the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of the antiatherosclerotic effects of telmisartan in macrophages and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. METHODS AND RESULTS In macrophages, telmisartan increased peroxisome proliferator-activated(More)
Macrophage-derived foam cells play important roles in the progression of atherosclerosis. We reported previously that ERK1/2-dependent granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression, leading to p38 MAPK/ Akt signaling, is important for oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)-induced macrophage proliferation. Here, we investigated(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Although caloric restriction (CR) improves obesity-related disorders, the effects of CR on ER stress in obesity remain unknown. To investigate how CR affects ER stress in obesity, ob/ob mice were assigned to either ad libitum (AL) (ob-AL) or CR(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and its activation is reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerosis. We have reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) activate PPARγ in macrophages. However, it is not yet known whether(More)
BACKGROUND Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors modulate incretin hormones and exert anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) is a proven successful intervention for hypertension with type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated the combined effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor(More)
The male part of the spadix of Dracunculus vulgaris exhibits a degree of temperature regulation by inversely controlled heat production over a 20–35 °C range of tissue temperature. To clarify the effects of temperature on cellular metabolism, comparative analysis was performed using 51 metabolites from two distinct tissues (florets and pith) of thermogenic(More)
Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other proinflammatory substances by macrophages plays an important role in atherogenesis. Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone), which is well known as a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of the generation of ROS. However, the suppressive effects of apocynin on(More)
Silver(I) oxalate, Ag2(C2O4), reacts with two equivalents of oleylamine (Ag:oleylamine = 1:1 mole/mole) to form an oxalate-bridged silver-oleylamine complex, [(oleylamine)Ag(micro-C2O4)Ag(oleylamine)]. The precursor complex is thermally decomposed at approximately 150 degrees C with CO2 evolution to produce Ag nanoparticles with approximately 11 nm(More)
In this paper, we propose a design method of the narrow band FIR filter in a Fluency signal space. As a result, we can make superior narrow band FIR filters than ordinary one. While an FIR filter has advantages that it is stable and can realize perfect linear phase, its transfer function can be of higher order according to desired accuracy. One of such(More)
BACKGROUND The induction of heat shock protein (HSP) 72 by mild electrical stimulation with heat shock (MES + HS), which improves visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in mice, may be beneficial in treating metabolic syndrome (MS) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS Using open-label crossover trials, 40 subjects with MS or T2DM were randomly(More)