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Flavonols are produced by the desaturation of dihydroflavanols, which is catalyzed by flavonol synthase (FLS). FLS belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate iron-dependent oxygenase family. The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the FLS gene (designated as GbFLS) were isolated from Ginkgo biloba. The full-length cDNA of GbFLS contained a 1023-bp open reading(More)
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that contribute substantially to the quality of Ginkgo biloba. Plant flavonoid accumulation is controlled by transcriptional regulation of the genes that encode the biosynthetic enzymes, in which the R2R3-MYB transcription factor is a key factor. In this study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of a(More)
The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of monolignols. A cDNA sequence encoding the CAD gene was isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L, designated as GbCAD1. The full-length cDNA of GbCAD1 was 1,494 bp containing a 1,074 bp open reading frame encoding a(More)
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD(More)
The promotion of hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) has been proposed as one promising solution for reducing transport energy consumption and mitigating vehicular emissions in China. In this study, the energy and environmental impacts of hybrid and EVs during 2010–2020 were evaluated through an energy conversion analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA),(More)
Members of the APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor superfamily are widely present in plants and play important roles in the plant cell cycle, growth and development, as well as the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The maize genome project has been completed; therefore, it is possible to identify all of the AP2/ERF genes(More)
Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated GbHSP16.8, GbHSP17 and GbHSP70. The full length of the three(More)
WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for(More)