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There is still no clear consensus as to which of the many functional and structural changes in the brain in schizophrenia are of most importance, although the main focus to date has been on those in the frontal and cingulate cortices. In the present study, we have used a novel holistic approach to identify brain-wide functional connectivity changes in(More)
Attempts to identify causal interactions in multivariable biological time series (e.g., gene data, protein data, physiological data) can be undermined by the confounding influence of environmental (exogenous) inputs. Compounding this problem, we are commonly only able to record a subset of all related variables in a system. These recorded variables are(More)
Oscillatory activity plays a critical role in regulating biological processes at levels ranging from subcellular, cellular, and network to the whole organism, and often involves a large number of interacting elements. We shed light on this issue by introducing a novel approach called partial Granger causality to reliably reveal interaction patterns in(More)
BACKGROUND Biological processes typically involve the interactions of a number of elements (genes, cells) acting on each others. Such processes are often modelled as networks whose nodes are the elements in question and edges pairwise relations between them (transcription, inhibition). But more often than not, elements actually work cooperatively or(More)
Schizophrenia is associated with disconnectivity in the brain although it is still unclear whether changes within or between hemispheres are of greatest importance. In this paper, an analysis of 152 schizophrenia patients compared with 122 healthy controls was carried out. Comparisons were also made with 39 depression patients and 37 controls to examine(More)
Background: Inference and understanding of gene networks from experimental data is an important but complex problem in molecular biology. Mapping of gene pathways typically involves inferences arising from various studies performed on individual pathway components. Although pathways are often conceptualized as distinct entities, it is often understood that(More)
BACKGROUND We present a novel and systematic approach to analyze temporal microarray data. The approach includes normalization, clustering and network analysis of genes. METHODOLOGY Genes are normalized using an error model based uniform normalization method aimed at identifying and estimating the sources of variations. The model minimizes the correlation(More)
In order to analyze functional connectivity in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia, resting-state fMRI data were obtained for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis from 22 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia (NNS), 61 first-episode neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia (NTS) patients, and 60 healthy controls (HC). Reductions were(More)
BACKGROUND The efficiency of human brain depends on the integrity of both long- and short-range connections, but the long-range connections need to be "penalized" to reduce overall wiring costs. This principle, termed as the anatomical distance function (ADF), refers to the presence of an inverse relationship between anatomical distance and connectivity. A(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies imply that interhemispheric disconnectivity plays a more important role on information processing in schizophrenia. However, the role of the aberrant interhemispheric connection in the pathophysiology of this disorder remains unclear. Recently, resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has reported to have(More)