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Retinoic acid (RA) regulates gene transcription by activating the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ and their respective cognate lipid-binding proteins CRABP-II and FABP5. RA induces neuronal differentiation, but the contributions of the two transcriptional pathways of the hormone to the(More)
Filamin A (FLNA) is an integrator of cell mechanics and signaling. The spreading and migration observed in FLNA sufficient A7 melanoma cells but not in the parental FLNA deficient M2 cells have been attributed to FLNA. In A7 and M2 cells, the normal prion (PrP) exists as pro-PrP, retaining its glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor peptide signal(More)
The cellular prion protein (PrP) is a highly conserved, widely expressed, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) cell surface glycoprotein. Since its discovery, most studies on PrP have focused on its role in neurodegenerative prion diseases, whereas its function outside the nervous system remains unclear. Here, we report that human pancreatic(More)
Endocannabinoids modulate multiple behaviors, including learning and memory. We show that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) can alter neuronal cell function both through its established role in activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor CB1, and by serving as a precursor for a potent agonist of the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ, in turn up-regulating(More)
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cancer causing deaths in the USA, with more than 30,000 deaths per year. The overall median survival for all pancreatic cancer is 6 months and the 5-year survival rate is less than 10%. This dismal outcome reflects the inefficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents, as well as the lack of an early diagnostic marker. A(More)
Mutation in the prion gene PRNP accounts for 10-15% of human prion diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which mutant prion proteins (PrPs) cause disease. Here we investigated the effects of 10 different pathogenic mutations on the conformation and ligand-binding activity of recombinant human PrP (rPrP). We found that mutant rPrPs react(More)
The RNA-binding protein HuR binds at 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of target transcripts, thereby protecting them against degradation. We show that HuR directly interacts with cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2), a protein known to transport RA from the cytosol to the nuclear retinoic acid receptor (RAR). Association with CRABP2 dramatically(More)
Mutation in the prion gene, PRNP, accounts for approx. 10-15% of human prion diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which a mutant prion protein (PrP) causes disease. We compared the biochemical properties of a wild-type human prion protein, rPrP(C) (recombinant wild-type PrP), which has five octapeptide-repeats, with two recombinant(More)
We compared the biochemical properties of a wild type recombinant normal human cellular prion protein, rPrP(c), with a recombinant mutant human prion protein that has three additional octapeptide repeats, rPrP(8OR). Monoclonal antibodies that are specific for the N terminus of rPrP(c) react much better with rPrP(8OR) than rPrP(c), suggesting that the N(More)
Aberrant protein aggregation causes numerous neurological diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), but the aggregation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report AFM results on the formation pathways of β-oligomers and nonfibrillar aggregates from wild-type full-length recombinant human prion protein (WT) and an insertion mutant (10OR)(More)