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In the mammalian retina, AII amacrine cells play a crucial role in scotopic vision. They transfer rod signals from rod bipolar cells to the cone circuit, and divide these signals into the ON and OFF pathways at the discrete synaptic layers. AII amacrine cells have been reported to generate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive repetitive spikes of small amplitude.(More)
In retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the expression of various types of voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) alpha-subunits (Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, and Nav1.6) has been reported. Like RGCs, certain subsets of retinal amacrine cells, including AII amacrine cells, generate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive action potentials in response to light; however, the Nav(More)
[1] Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important atmospheric greenhouse gas and is involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. Analysis of the isotopomer ratios of N 2 O (i.e., the intramolecular distribution of 15 N within the linear NNO molecule and the conventional N and O isotope ratios) can elucidate the mechanisms of N 2 O production and destruction. We(More)
Compartmentalization of neuronal function is achieved by highly localized clustering of ion channels in discrete subcellular membrane domains. Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels exhibit highly variable cellular and subcellular patterns of expression. Here, we describe novel activity-dependent synaptic targeting of Kv4.2, a dendritic Kv channel, in(More)
By using data collected during a continuous circumnavigation of the Southern Hemisphere, we observed clear patterns in the population-genetic structure of Prochlorococcus, the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth, between and within the three Southern Subtropical Gyres. The same mechanisms that were previously invoked to account for the vertical(More)
The molecules that regulate the apoptosis cascade are also involved in differentiation and syncytial fusion in skeletal muscle. MyoD is a myogenic transcription factor that plays essential roles in muscle differentiation. We noticed that MyoD(-/-) myoblasts display remarkable resistance to apoptosis by down-regulation of miR-1 (microRNA-1) and miR-206 and(More)
In this issue, Comai et al. present evidence that previous support for Myf5-independent myogenic cell lineages was confounded by inefficiencies in lineage marking and ablation. Here, Haldar et al. discuss other possible explanations for the inconsistencies between different data sets and reiterate their views on Myf5-independent myogenesis.
BACKGROUND In university health care settings, students with psychosomatic complaints often have chronotypic problems. For this reason, we investigated a potential connection between psychosomatic complaints and circadian rhythm irregularity assessed by salivary levels of melatonin and growth hormone. METHODS Fifteen healthy students between 21 and 22(More)
Retinal amacrine cells are interneurons that make lateral and vertical connections in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Amacrine cells do not possess a long axon, and this morphological feature is the origin of their naming. Their dendrites function as both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites. Half of all amacrine cells are GABAergic inhibitory(More)
ϩ current and Ca 2ϩ current boost graded depolarization of rat retinal amacrine cells in culture. Retinal amacrine cells are depolarized by the excitatory synap-tic input from bipolar cells. When a graded depolarization exceeds the threshold level, trains of action potentials are generated. There have been several reports that both spikes and graded(More)