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Diazotrophic heterocyst formation in the filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, is one of the simplest pattern formations known to occur in cell differentiation. Most previous studies on heterocyst patterning were based on statistical analysis using cells collected or observed at different times from a liquid culture, which would mask stochastic(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to compare the bactericidal effect of the Er:YAG (wavelength 2.94 microm) and the Alexandrite (wavelength 0.75 microm) laser radiation. The spreading laser energy in the surrounding hard dental tissues round the root canal was evaluated and the bactericidal effect of both these different laser wavelengths was(More)
A gradient elution system for pressure-driven liquid chromatography (LC) on a chip was developed for carrying out faster and more efficient chemical analyses. Through computational fluid dynamics simulations and an experimental study, we found that the use of a cross-Tesla structure with a 3 mm mixing length was effective for mixing two liquids. A gradient(More)
We propose a novel sensor system for monitoring the structural health of a building. The system optically measures the relative-story displacement during earthquakes for detecting any deformations of building elements. The sensor unit is composed of three position sensitive detectors (PSDs) and lenses capable of measuring the relative-story displacement(More)
A photoassisted anodization process to fabricate arrays of uniform and straight macropores at selected areas of a Si wafer surface was developed. The front- and backside surfaces of n-type Si(100) wafers were coated with a thin Si(3)N(4) layer, and the frontside layer was micro-patterned using photolithography and reactive ion etching to form an array of(More)
In this study, we show for the first time that the separation efficiency of a pillar array column under pressure-driven liquid chromatography (LC) conditions can be improved using a separation channel with low-dispersion turns. The pillar array column was fabricated by reactive ion etching of a silicon substrate. With the low-dispersion-turn geometry, a(More)
Protein secretion, a key intercellular event for transducing cellular signals, is thought to be strictly regulated. However, secretion dynamics at the single-cell level have not yet been clarified because intercellular heterogeneity results in an averaging response from the bulk cell population. To address this issue, we developed a novel assay platform for(More)
In this study, a fast and quantitative determination method for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), namely leucine, isoleucine, and valine, was developed using a pillar array column. A pillar array column with low-dispersion turns was fabricated on a 20 × 20-mm(2) microchip using multistep ultraviolet photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. The(More)
We have developed a microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter system using a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) as a switching valve. The glass sorter chip has Y-shaped microchannels with one inlet and two outlets. A biological specimen containing fluorescently labeled cells is mixed with a solution containing a thermoreversible sol-gel(More)
Microfluidic systems have significant implications in the field of cell separation since they could provide platforms with inexpensive, disposable and sterile structures. Here, we present a novel strategy to integrate microfluidic sorters into a single chip for high throughput sorting. Our parallel sorter consists of a microfluidic chip with a(More)